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^^         lA^cZ/^/-^ 


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Irrljifiilngin  Cainlupneis,  ^^^/ 





l\i  (Camhrinii  :Hrtli{EDlngirnl  Ijsntintinn. 

SUPPLE  ^lENT,  1859. 

W.    PICKERING,    177,    PICCADILLY. 



-^Cx      . 


This  Volume,  which  appears  under  the  auspices  of  the 
Cambrian  ARCHiEOLOGicAL  Association,  contains  three 
Papers  of  considerable  importance  to  those  engaged  in 
studying  the  antiquities  of  Wales. 

The  first  is  an  examination  of  the  evidence  in  favour 
of  the  existence  of  a  Gaelic  tribe  in  North  Wales  within 
the  historic  period,  not  as  mere  invaders,  but  as  settled 
occupants  of  the  country.  The  subject  has  hitherto 
comparatively  escaped  the  notice  of  Welsh  historians  and 
antiquaries.  It  is,  however,  one  which,  in  the  hands  of 
its  author,  offers  a  fruitful  harvest  to  the  inquirer,  suf- 
ficiently well  read,  and  endowed  with  critical  acumen 
enough,  to  follow  the  faint  indications  of  a  former  race, 
whether  afforded  by  local  tradition,  by  a  local  nomen- 
clature, or  by  general  history.  The  Paper  was  read,  in 
substance,  at  the  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Association,  at 
Dolgellau,  in  August,  1850  ;  the  proofs  and  illustrations 
in  the  second,  third,  fourth  and  fifth  sections,  the  theory 
developed  in  the  seventh,  and  the  whole  of  the  last,  being 
omitted  in  recitation. 

The  next  Paper  was  also  read  at  the  Dolgellau  Meet- 
ing, and  contains  a  sketch,  rather  than  a  detailed  account, 

li  b  [3  i  o '  i" 


of  what  may  be  fairly  inferred  to  have  been  the  agricul- 
tural and  commercial  condition  of  Britain  before,  during, 
and  after  the  Roman  sway.  It  is  to  be  hoped  that  its 
learned  author  will  develope  certain  parts  of  his  Essay 
rather  more  fully  in  the  pages  of  the  Archceologia 
Cambrensis ;  and  that  he  will  there  bring  forward  the 
authorities  which  he  has  consulted,  with  the  various 
passages  on  which  he  grounds  opinions,  in  themselves 
highly  probable.  Few  persons  have  penetrated  so  deeply 
into  the  more  abstruse,  and  comparatively  unknown, 
pages  of  the  writers  of  the  Lower  Empire,  than  the 
author  of  this  Paper ;  and  few  antiquaries  are  able  to 
discuss  incidental  topics,  or  to  draw  forth  latent  conclu- 
sions, with  greater  skill  and  more  logical  acuteness. 

The  third  and  last  Paper  in  this  Volume,  contains  a 
copious  Glossary  of  the  ancient  names  of  Articles  of 
British  Dress  and  Armour,  as  far  as  they  are  met  with 
in  the  bardic  and  diplomatic  documents  remaining  in  the 
Welsh  language.  Part  of  this  Paper  has  already  been 
printed  in  the  pages  of  the  Archceologia  Cambrensis; 
but  from  the  interesting  nature  of  the  materials  amassed 
by  the  author — growing  under  his  hand  as  the  work 
proceeded — it  has  been  deemed  more  useful  to  the  anti- 
quarian world  that  this  Glossary  should  be  published  in 
a  collective  form,  as  being  easier  of  reference  than  when 
scattered  through  various  Numbers  of  the  Journal  of 
the  Association.  In  this  case,  as  in  the  former,  it  is  much 
to  be  desired  that  the  author  may  have  the  leisure  to 
compile  a  similar  glossary  for  objects  of  domestic  use, 
perhaps  even  of  architectural  and  industrial  objects,  of 
manufactured  articles,  &c. ;  for,  doubtless,  the  study  of 


Welsh  antiquities,  and   the  ethnological   history  of  the 
nation  itself,  would  be  thereby  greatly  facilitated. 

The  judicious  reader  will  scarcely  fail  to  observe  how, 
in  these  three  Papers,  a  tone  of  acute  and  accurate  logical 
induction — a  spirit  of  scientific  archseology — prevails,  in 
the  absence  of  all  that  wild  and  unfounded  rhapsodical 
speculation  in  Avhich  other  writers  have  been  too  apt  to 
indulge.  Archaeology  is  a  science  inseparable  from,  if 
not  identical  with,  history  ;  and  it  requires  to  be  treated 
with  all  the  learning,  all  the  reasoning,  all  the  argu- 
mentative discrimination,  which  are  necessary  to  any 
man  before  he  can  presume  to  attempt  anything  really 
worthy  of  the  historic  muse.  The  antiquities  of  ^yales 
have  often  sufiered  from  this  absence  of  extended  learn- 
ing in  the  minds  of  those  who  have  handled  them ;  for 
it  should  be  remembered  that  no  one  is  competent  to 
treat  of  the  history,  or  language,  or  archaeological  con- 
dition, of  his  country,  unless  he  is  skilled  in  all  these. 
points,  as  connected  with  other  nations  and  countries 
besides  his  own.  In  this  point  of  view,  the  attention 
of  the  reader  is  particularly  claimed  for  the  contents  of 
the  present  Volume. 

It  may  not  be  out  of  place  to  express  the  further  wish, 
that  the  several  authors  of  these  Papers  will  listen  to  the 
following  suggestions  as  to  their  future  labours.  A  critic, 
in  one  of  the  weekly  organs  of  public  opinion,  has  already 
hinted  that  the  author  of  the  Vestiges,  &c.,  should  under- 
take a  scientific — we  might  perhaps  call  it  an  ethnological 
and  social — history  of  Wales.  Such  a  work,  notwith- 
standing the  labours  of  Carnhuanawc,  is  still  much 
wanted  ;  and  he  is  quite  able  to  accomplish  it. 


The  author  of  the  State  of  Agriculture,  &c.,  is  the 
only  man  now  remaining  who  is  competent  to  write  the 
liistory  of  Caernarvonshire — perhaps,  to  complete  the 
Antiquitates  Parockiales  of  Rowlands.  His  collections 
upon  these  subjects  are  great;  his  own  store  of  tradition 
and  of  local  knowledge  is  much  more  considerable ;  and 
unless  what  he  thus  possesses  be  digested  and  committed 
to  writing,  it  will  entirely  perish  with  him,  whenever  he 
is  summoned  to  leave  us. 

The  author  of  the  third  Paper  is  already  engaged  in 
the  excellent  national  service  of  re-editing  the  Myvyrian 
Archaiology.  When  this  shall  be  finished,  let  him  only 
rest  upon  his  pen,  not  lay  it  aside  ;  his  country  expects 
still  more,  even  than  this,  from  his  patient  research 
amongst,    and   his    calm    examination   of,    her   ancient 


The  three  Papers  are  also  published,  and  may  be 
purchased,  separately. 



Vestiges  of  the  Gael  in  Gwynedd.     By  the  Rev.  WiUiam  Basil 

Jones,  M.A.,  Fellow  of  Queen's  College,  Oxford 1 

On  the  State  of  Agricultiu-e,  and  the  Progi-ess  of  Arts  and 
Manufactures  in  Britain,  during  the  Period,  and  under  the 
Influence,  of  the  Druidical  System.  By  the  Rev.  John 
Jones,  M.A.,  Rector  of  Llanllyfni,  Caernarvonshire 87 

A  Glossary  of  Terms  used  for  Articles  of  British  Dress  and 
Armour.  By  the  Rev.  John  Williams  (ab  Ithel),  M.A., 
Rector  of  Llanymowddwy,  Merionethshii'e  Ill 


§    I. LOSS    OF    ANCIENT    NAMES. 

The  question  of  the  primeval  occupations  of  a  country  is 
among  the  most  directly  and  purely  interesting  of  any 
which  its  present  inhabitants  can  entertain.  It  is  of 
direct  interest,  because  it  is  their  country.  The  vales 
which  they  inhabit — the  fields  which  yield  them  sus- 
tenance— the  fertilizing  streams — the  mighty  hills  which 
they  are  taught  to  look  upon  as  types  of  permanence, 
and  that  which  is  at  once  the  bulwark  of  their  liberty, 
and  the  channel  of  their  civilization,  the  universal  ocean — 
all  familiar  objects,  whose  names  are  to  them  as  house- 
hold words,  and  possibly  those  very  names  themselves 
were  the  birth-right  of  a  race  which  has  passed  away,  it 
may  be,  from  the  face  of  the  earth,  leaving  not  a 
memorial  of  its  existence,  or  only  the  very  faintest  traces. 
Moreover,  the  interest  of  the  question  is  intense,  in 
proportion  to  the  obscurity  of  the  indications  by  which 
we  have  to  determine  it.  We  all  know  the  excitement 
of  curiosity — the  attractiveness  of  mystery — the  pleasure 
which  men  feel  in  reconstructing  a  bygone  state  of  things 
out  of  its  scattered  fragments — the  charm  of  disinterested 
suspense,  and   the  satisfaction   of  successful  ingenuity. 


These,  and  other  similar  elements,  combine  to  augment 
the  interest  we  feel  in  prosecuting  inquiries  of  this  nature. 

But  the  question  is  not  only  one  of  direct  and  intense 
interest — it  is  also  purely  interesting.  Subjects  of 
political  or  practical  import  have  a  far  higher  value 
than  any  which  can  be  derived  from  mere  intellectual 
interest.  They  can  hardly  be  considered  without  refe- 
rence to  action;  and  so  far  as  a  question  issues  in  action, 
we  do  not  call  it  interesting.  To  take  an  illustration 
from  other  branches  of  knowledge :  Astronomy  is  inte- 
resting, and  Agriculture  useful ;  Geology  is  interesting 
to  the  scientific  inquirer,  but  a  matter  of  business  to  the 
miner ;  while,  to  every  Christian,  it  is  of  deep  and  vital 
import,  as  long  as  its  statements  either  do,  or  can  be 
supposed  to,  affect  the  authenticity  of  Divine  Revelation. 

Now,  as  the  intensity  of  this  interest  is  directly  depen- 
dent on  the  obscurity  of  the  memorials,  so  is  its  purity 
indirectly  proportioned  to  the  same.  For  it  is  hardly 
possible  that  the  prior  occupants  of  a  country,  in  such  an 
age  especially  as  is  necessary  for  a  total  change  of  its 
inhabitants,  should  leave  behind  them  plain  and  authentic 
records  of  their  existence,  without  in  some  way  affecting 
the  destinies  of  their  successors,  and  so  passing  out  of 
the  sphere  of  historical  interest,  into  that  of  historical 
importance.  Such  records  must  be  the  memorials  either 
of  stubborn  resistance,  or  of  elements  absorbed  into  the 
supervening  system  ;  and  neither  of  these  can  have  taken 
place  without  having  materially  affected  tliat  system. 
Thus,  the  very  conditions  of  pure  historical  interest  are 
identical,  in  one  respect  at  least,  with  the  conditions  of 
its  intensity. 


The  question  which  I  am  now  approaching  belongs  to 
this  class  partly,  but  not  wholly.  So  long  as  we  merely 
attempt  to  determine  who  were  our  predecessors  in  the 
occupation  of  this  country,  or  whether  any  such  existed, 
the  question  is  one  of  extreme  and  pure  interest ;  but,  as 
soon  as  we  touch  on  the  settlement  of  our  own  progeni- 
tors in  Gwynedd,  it  assumes  at  once  the  form  of  historical 
importance.  And,  as  these  points  cannot  be  separated,  I 
shall  solicit  your  attention  to  the  subject,  regarded  under 
the  twofold  aspect  of  importance  and  interest.  As  a 
matter  of  fact,  these  points  cannot  be  considered  separately, 
because  we  have  generally  taken  it  for  granted  that  the 
present  inhabitants  of  this  country  have  dwelt  in  it  from 
the  beginning.  If  they  had  believed  and  avowed  them- 
selves to  be  invaders  and  interlopers,  the  history  of  the 
aborigines  might  have  formed  an  amusing  speculation, 
whereas,  at  present,  it  is  necessarily  mixed  up  with  many 
practical  questions. 

The  case  stands  thus  at  present.  As  in  England 
people  are  apt  to  regard  the  Roman  dominion,  the  Saxon 
immigration,  and  the  Norman  conquest,  as  events  dif- 
fering not  at  all  in  kind,  and  perhaps  hardly  in  degree, 
so  have  we  tacitly  acquiesced  in  the  belief  that  we  are  an 
aboriginal  nation.  But  surely  this  ought  not  to  be 
assumed  until  it  has  been  proved.  As  far  as  I  know, 
the  position  has  never  been  proved,  and  though  generally 
believed,  has  been  occasionally  impugned  :  I  trust,  there- 
fore, I  shall  not  be  deemed  an  audacious  innovator, 
or  maintainer  of  paradoxes,  for  again  bringing  it  into 

In  reading  the  histories  of  Caesar  and   Tacitus,  the 


geographies  of  Strabo,  Ptolemy,  and  Pomponius  Mela, 
the  Itinerary  of  Antoninus,  and  that  of  Richard  of  Ciren- 
cester, we  are  met  at  once  by  the  patent  fact,  that  a  great 
and  sweeping  change  has  passed  upon  the  names  of 
localities  within  this  island.  Compare  the  case  of  France, 
and  the  fact  becomes  evident.  The  names  of  the  many 
nations  who  dwelt  from  the  Rhine  to  the  Atlantic,  from 
the  Mediterranean  to  the  German  Ocean,  have  not  yet 
been  extinguished.  The  various  tribes  who  submitted 
to  or  resisted  the  dominion  of  the  Csesars,  have  mostly 
left  memorials  of  their  independence  in  the  names  of  the 
great  provincial  towns.  The  appellations  of  natural 
objects,  of  rivers  and  mountains,  are  unchanged  except 
by  time.  And  yet  that  country  has  experienced  mighty 
revolutions.  The  Romans  had  changed  its  language  and 
its  character.  Huns  and  Saracens  have  swept  over  it. 
Franks  and  Visigoths  have  occupied  it.  But,  for  all  this, 
men  continue  to  hand  down  the  memory  of  those  ancient 
people,  by  an  unconscious  but  everlasting  testimony. 

I  need  not  say  that  our  case  is  far  different.  London 
and  York,  the  Severn  and  the  Thames,  a  few  natural 
objects,  and  a  few  time-honoured  cities,  retain  the  names 
by  which  they  were  known  to  the  Romans ;  but,  of  the 
Trinobantes,  the  Iceni,  and  the  Brigantes,  the  nations  of 
Cartismandua,  Boadicea,  and  Cassivellaunus,  every  trace 
has  long  since  been  obliterated,  and  their  exact  position 
is  a  matter  of  historical  inquiry.  It  will  be  said  that  the 
Teutonic  immigration  into  Britain  was  a  far  more  com- 
plete and  decisive  change  than  the  corresponding  event 
in  Gaul.  The  assertion  is  undeniable,  and  scarcely  needs 
any  further  confirmation  than  the  fact  that  English  is 


spoken  in  one  country,  and  French  in  the  other.  But 
this  brings  us  to  the  very  point  at  issue.  If  in  England 
the  ancient  names  have  been  blotted  out  one  after 
another  by  the  victorious  Saxons,  what  has  been  done  in 
this  country,  where,  according  to  the  popular  view,  no 
change  whatever  has  taken  place  ?  We  have  here,  as  it 
seems,  a  crucial  instance  to  try  the  question  by.  If  our 
local  names  remain  unaltered,  as  in  France,  it  is  probable 
that  there  has  been  no  change  in  our  population,  or  a 
very  trifling  one.  If  they  have  been  generally  effaced,  as 
in  England,  there  is  a  strong  presumption  in  favour  of 
the  influx  of  some  external  element. 

Our  authorities  on  this  head  may  be  arranged  in  four 
classes.  In  the  first,  we  place  Caesar,  as  an  eye-witness ; 
in  the  second,  Tacitus,  as  an  historian  of  the  first  repu- 
tation. Then  come  the  Itinerary  of  Antoninus,  and  the 
geographers  Strabo,  Ptolemy,  and  Pomponius  Mela. 
The  fourth  place  is  reserved  for  Richard  of  Cirencester. 
But,  of  these,  four  only  bear  upon  the  present  question, 
and  we  may  regard  their  authority  as  varying  in  the 
order  of  enumeration.  These  are  Tacitus,  Ptolemy, 
Antoninus,  and  Richard  the  Monk. 


We  will  begin  with  Tacitus.  In  the  Annals  we  meet 
with  the  river  Sabrina,^  and  the  tribe  of  Silures,"  in 
South  Wales ;  and,  in  North  Wales,  the  nations  of  the 
Ordovices^  and  Cangi,  the  latter  of  whom  he  describes  as 

1  Tac.  Ann.,  xii.,  c.  31         ^  ji^id,^  c.  33,  38,  39,  &c.,  xiv.,  29. 
3  Ibid.,  xii.,  c.  33.     Agric,  c.  17. 


not  far  from  the  sea  on  the  side  of  Ireland,"*  together  with 
the  island  of  Mona.^  Of  the  southern  names,  the  one  is 
obviously  retained  in  the  Severn,  the  other  less  obviously 
in  the  old  Welsh  name  for  the  south-eastern  part  of  the 
Principality — Essyllwg.  Of  the  northern  names,  that  of 
Mona  alone  remains. 

Antoninus  presents  us  with  the  folloAving  names  of 
stations  in  North  Wales : — 

Segontium,  on  the  Seiont ; 

Conovium,  on  the  Conway ; 

Varis/  near  Bod-jfari; 

Deva,  Chester  on  the  Dee;'' 

Bi'avinium ;  ^ 

Bovium ; 

Mediolanum ; 

The  last  four  names  are  entirely  lost.     In  South  Wales 
we  find  : — ■ 

Leucarum,  Louglior  on  the  Llychwr ; 

Nidum,  Neath  on  the  Nedd ; 

Bomium  (Bovium),  Bovcrton  (?); 

Isca  Leg.  II.  Augusta.     Caerleon  on  the  Usk; 

Burrium ; 

Gobannium,  Abergavenny  on  the  Gavenny ; 

Magna  ;^ 

Venta  Silurum,  Cdier-went  in  Gwent. 
Burrium  and  Magna  are  lost ;  the  latter  is  possibly  a 
Latin  name. 

*  "  Hand  procul  mari  quod  Hiberniam  aspectat." 

5  Ann.,  xiv.,  c.  29.     Agric,  c.   17.     Mona  is  also  mentioned  by 
Caesar  and  Pliny. 

6  Vans  is  a  dative  plural ;  it  does  not  appear  what  tlie  real  name 

7  Itinerary,  xi.  »  Ihid.,  xii.  9  Ihid.,  ii.  i  Ibid.,  xii. 

GAEL    IN    GWYNEDD.  / 

Ptolemy  enumerates  the  natural  objects,  proceeding 
southwards  along  the  coast ;  they  occur  in  the  following 
order  : — The  estuary  of  Seteia,  the  river  Tisobis,  the 
promontory  of  the  Cangani,  the  rivers  Stucia  and  Tue- 
robis,  the  promontory  Octapitarum,  the  rivers  Tobius 
and  Rhatostathybius,  and  the  estuary  of  Sabriana."  The 
position  assigned  to  the  Cangi  by  Tacitus,  and  to  the 
Cangani  by  Richard  of  Cirencester,  makes  it  clear  that 
the  three  localities  first  enumerated  are  in  North  Wales ; 
and  it  is  equally  clear,  from  the  probable  identification  of 
the  headland  of  Octapitarum,  or  Octorupium,  with  St. 
David's  Head,  that  the  four  last  named  places  are  in 
South  Wales.  The  former  are  altogether  lost ;  while,  of 
the  latter,  two  can  easily  be  identified  with  the  Tywy 
and  the  Severn.  Octapitarum  is  apparently  a  foreign 
word.  The  two  intervening  names,  Stucia  and  Tuerobis, 
can  only  be  identified  with  the  Ystwyth  and  Teifi,  both 
in  South  Wales.^     This  author  mentions  the  Ordovices  in 

^  2e7>/Va  e'ic-^^yaiQ. 
ToKTOjjiog  TTOT.  itcjJoXal. 
Kaykavwv  (var.  1.  Fayyavuii')  uKpov. 

TovepopioQ  TTOT.  iicpoXai. 

'OtcraTrlrapor  ciKpov. 

Tofylov  (var.  1.  Toi;/3iov)  tot.  eK[3o\aL 

'FaroQTadvfiiov  tzot.  tK(jo\ai. 

2a/3pta)'a  eic-)^vcng  (var,  1.  ^aftpiaraic  ^(^vaic.) 
I  observe  that,  in  the  notes  to  the  lolo  MSS.,  Rhatostathybius,  or 
Rhatostaubius,  is  identified  with  the  Taf,  or  Tibia  Amnis.  It  is  ex- 
plained Rhath  Taf— the  Taff  mooi-land.  Rhath,  or  Roath,  is  a  place 
contiguous  to  Cardiff. — p.  374,  Note.  Baxter  assigns  to  it  the  same 
locality,  though  not  the  same  signification. —  Glos.  Ant.  Brit.,  sub  voce. 
3  It  is  true  that  these  rivers  Avere  included  in  a  district  which  we 
shall  presently  have  to  regard  as  part  of  North  Wales ;  but  it  will 
appear  that  this  district  was  probably  conquered  at  a  very  early  period. 


North  Wales,  and  apparently  includes  among  them  the 
Cangiani/  naming  their  chief  cities  Mediolanum  and 
Brannogenium,  names  altogether  lost.  In  South  Wales 
he  places  the  Demetse  to  the  west,  their  towns  being 
Loventium  and  Maridunum  ;  and  the  Silures  to  the  east, 
whose  only  town  is  Bullium.^  The  Demetse  and  Mari- 
dunum are  Dyfed  and  Caermarthen  ;  Loventium  is  sup- 
posed to  be  Llanio,  and  Bullium  has  been  identified  with 

We  now  bid  farewell  to  ancient  authors,  and  turn  to 
Richard  of  Cirencester — a  writer  more  copious,  but  of 
less  authority.  The  following  North-Welsh  names  occur 
in  his  "  Itinerary"  : — 

Banchorium,  Bangor  Iscoed  ; 

Deva  Colonia; 

Varis ; 

Conovium  ; 


Heriri  Mons; 

Mediolanum ; 

Rutunium  ; 

The  only  new  names  here  are  Banchorium  and  Heriri 
Mons.  The  former  is  so  obviously  late  a  name,  that  it 
must  be  cut  off  as  being  fictitious,  or,  at  all  events, 
foreign  to  our  purpose.  The  latter  is  placed  near 
Trawsfynydd.     In  the  South  we  meet  with — 

*  Ytto  C£  tovtovq  Kctl  Tov£  ^plym'Tag  oIkovcti  Svajjuctjorara  jiev  'Op^oviKec 
iv  (HQ  TToXeiQ  MtdioXai'ioj',  Bparroyii'ior. — Ibid. 

IlttXi)'  C  vTTo  TO.  ilp-qjAtva  edi'T]  ^vajxiKwraroi  j^iev  Aij[Ji]raif  iv  oiq 
ttoXeic  Aovu'Tioy,  Mapihovi'oy.  Tovrwy  F  araroXiKMrepoi  'ZiXvpeg,  iv  oiq 
TToXic  BouWtoi'. 

6  Itinerary,  i.  7  Jbid.,  ii. 

GAEL     IN    GWYNEDD.  » 

Venta  Silurum  ; 
Isca  Colonia; 
Tibia  Amnis ; 
Bovium ; 
Nidum ; 
Leucarum ; 
#  #  *  * 

Ad  Vigesimum ; 

Ad  Menapiam ; " 

Bultrum,  or  Ballium;^ 

Gobannium ; 

Magna.  ^ 
The  new  names,   Tibia  Amnis,   and   Menapia,  are  the 
Taf,  and  St.  David's,  or  Mynyw. 

In  his  treatise  "  De  Situ  Britannise,"  Richard  enume- 
rates the  following  places  : — Sariconium  (Ross),  Magna, 
Gobaneum,  Venta,  Isca,  among  the  Silures;-  Octorupium 
Promontorium,  Menapia,  Muridunum,  and  Lovantium, 
among  the  Demetse,  or,  as  he  calls  them,  Demeciae.^  In 
the  country  of  the  Ordovices  he  places  Mediolanum  and 
Brannogenium,*  and  among  the  Cangiani,  who  dwelt  be- 
yond the  last  named  race,  Segontium^  as  their  only  town, 
the  isle  of  Mona,  the  Fretum  Meneviacum,  or  Menai 
Strait,  the  rivers  Deva  and  Canovius,  or  Tossibus,  and 
the  mountain  of  Eriri."     He  thus  appears  to  identify  the 

8  Itinerary,  iii.  9  Ibid.,  xiii.,  xiv.  ^  Ibid.,  xiii. 

2  De  Situ  Brit.,  i.,  c.  6,  §  22.         ^  /?,^v/.,  §  24.         *  Ibid. 

5  "  Hue  quoque  referendum  illud,  quod  a  Septentrione  Ordovicum 
situm  ab  Oceano  alluitur,  cum  illorum  regimini  quondam  fuerit  sub- 
jeetum :  hoc  certo  constat  quod  ilium  Cangiani  quondam  inhabita- 
verint  tractum,  quorum  urbs  unica  Segontium  promontorio  Cangano 
vicina." — De  Sitic  Brit.,  i.,  c.  6,  §  25.  It  is  to  be  observed  that  the 
worthy  monk  invariably  places  the  north  where  the  west  ought  to  be. 

6  Ibid. 



Conway  with  the  Tisobis  of  Ptolemy,  and  seems  to  indi- 
cate, by  placing  the  Dee  within  the  territory  of  the  Can- 
giani,  that  they  occupied  at  one  period  a  large  portion  of 
North  Wales. 

It  will  be  as  well  to  present  the  results  of  this  exami- 
nation in  a  tabular  form.  The  names  given  by  these 
several  authorities  remain  in  the  following  proportions :  "■ — • 

Added  hy 












.2  J 



















r  . 



































O        , 












1   C/j 



























Before  making  any  remarks  upon  this  table,  it  will  be 

7  The  proportion  of  names  remaining  has  been  thrown  into  a 
fractional  form  ;  the  number  of  names  recorded  is  indicated  by  the 
denominator,  while  the  numerator  shows  how  many  remain. 

GAEL    IN    GWYNEDD.  11 

necessary  to  premise  that  the  name  of  Banchorium"  has 
been  omitted  in  the  calculations,  for  reasons  already 
alleged,  and  those  of  Octapitarum  and  Ad  Vigesimum, 
as  being  foreign  names.  The  name  of  Magna  is  omit- 
ted, partly  on  that  account,  and  partly  because  the 
district  in  which  it  stands  has  been  wholly  Anglicised, 
and  the  place  itself  has  assumed  the  English  name  of 
Kentchester.  The  general  result  is  that,  whereas  in 
North  \Yales  one-half  of  the  ancient  names  of  places  are 
preserved,  three-fourths  remain  in  South  Wales.  But,  if 
we  subtract  the  additions  of  Richard  of  Cirencester,  we 
have,  in  North  Wales,  only  six  out  of  fourteen  names 
remaining — in  South  Wales,  thirteen  out  of  seventeen. 
Again,  of  the  names  surviving  in  North  Wales,  the 
largest  proportion  are  those  of  natural  objects,  which  we 
should  always  expect  to  be  the  most  permanent,  and  the 
remainder  are  those  of  towns  or  stations  preserved  in  the 
appellations  of  the  rivers  on  whose  banks  they  stood. 
The  most  important  conclusion  of  all  is,  that  the  names 
of  the  two  races  which  inhabited  North  Wales,  the  Ordo- 
vices  and  Cangi,  or  Cangiani,  are  utterly  lost,  while 
those  of  the  Demetee  and  Silures,  the  inliabitants  of  the 
South,  are  preserved  among  us. 

Now  these  considerations  suggest  the  probability  of  a 
revolution  of  some  kind  among  the  inhabitants  of 
Gwynedd,  since  the  close,  or,  at  all  events,  since  the 
commencement,  of  the  Roman  domination  in  Britain. 
The  nature  or  extent  of  such  a  revolution  is  a  further 
question  ;  all  that  can  be  said  at  present  is,  that  it  would 

^  Banchorium  and  Deva  are  placed  by  Richard  in  the  territory  of 
the  Carnabii. — De  Situ  Brit.,  i.,  c.  6,  §  27. 

12  VESTIGES     OF    THE 

seem  to  have  involved  a  total  or  partial  change  of  the 
population,  and  to  have  been  at  least  so  far  complete,  as 
to  have  obliterated  a  large  proportion  of  the  local  names. 
And  this  probability  is  heightened,  when  we  remember 
that  we  have  to  account  for  the  introduction  of  a  wholly 
new  name  into  North  \yales,  I  mean  that  of  Gwynedd. 
The  designation  of  Genania,  although  applied  to  this 
country,  with  some  degree  of  hesitation,  by  Richard  of 
Cirencester,^  can  hardly  be  a  latinized  form  of  Gwynedd, 
the  first  two  letters  of  which  are  invariably  represented 
by  V  in  Latin,  as  well  by  the  later  writers,  who  use  the 
form  Venedocia,  and  by  the  Romans  themselves  in  writ- 
ing other  British  names — as  Venta  for  Gwent.  It  is  also 
worthy  of  notice  that,  whereas  Richard  applies  the  name 
of  Genania  to  a  district  much  more  extensive  than  any  to 
which  that  of  Gwynedd  was  ever  applied,  there  is  reason 
to  think  that  Gwynedd  was  formerly  used  in  a  more 
limited  sense  than  afterwards. 


It  is  true  that  the  probability  does  not  amount  to 
more  than  a  presumption,  and  that  we  have  to  look  for 
other  evidence  as  well  to  confirm  as  to  explain  it.  Such 
evidence  is  by  no  means  wanting,  although  the  docu- 
ments on  which  it  rests  are  obscure,  and  often  contradic- 
tory. Nevertheless,  there  is  quite  enough  to  assure  us 
that  a  change,  of  which  it  is  not  easy  to  measure  either 

9  "  Ordovicia  una  cum  Caiigiorum  Carnabiorumque  regionibus, 
ni  fama  me  fallit,  nomine  Genaniae  sub  imperatoribus  post  Trajani 
principatum  inclarescebat." — De  Situ  Brit.,  i.,  c.  6,  §  25. 

GAEL    IN    (JWYNEDD.  13 

the  extent  or  the  degree,  came  over  the  population  of 
Gwyncdd,  at  some  period  subsequent  to  the  commence- 
ment of  the  Roman  dominion  in  Britain.  The  first 
notice  we  have  of  the  event  is  to  be  found  in  the  Triads, 
Avhich,  after  enumerating  the  various  races  which  had 
settled  at  different  periods  in  our  island,  reckon  among 
"the  three  invading  tribes  that  came  into  the  isle  of 
Britain,  and  departed  from  it,  ...  .  the  hosts  of 
Ganfael  Wyddel,  who  came  to  Gwynedd,  and  were  there 
twenty-nine  years,  until  they  were  driven  into  the  sea 
by  Caswallawn  the  son  of  Beh,  the  son  of  Manogan."^ 
I  call  this  the  first  notice  of  this  event,  because  it  is 
the  earliest  that  occurs  in  the  Triads,  which  are  allowed 
to  contain  the  earliest  native  authorities  on  ancient 
British  history.  Another  Triad  enumerates,  among  "  the 
three  dreadful  pestilences  of  the  isle  of  Britain,  the  pesti- 
lence from  the  carcases  of  the  Gwyddyl,  who  were  slain 
in  Manuba,  after  they  had  oppressed  the  country  of 
Gwynedd  for  twenty-nine  years."-  It  is  evident  that 
these  documents  relate  to  the  same  transaction,  and  we 
gather  from  them  that  North  Wales,  or  some  part  of  it, 
was  under  the  dominion  of  a  people  called  Gwyddyl, 
for  twenty-nine  years,  who  were  finally  expelled  by 
Caswallawn,  or  Cassivellaunus,  the  opponent  of  Julius 
C^sar.  The  name  Gwyddel  is  to  this  day  applied  to 
the  Irish,  and  is,  etymologically,  the  same  as  Gael,  ^  the 
common  name  of  the  Irish,  and  Highlanders  of  Scotland.* 

1  Tiioecld  Ynys  Piydain.     Myv.  Arch.,  vol.  ii.,  p.  58. 

2  Ihkl.,  p.  29. 

3  The  latter  word  is  spelt  Gaoidheal,  the   soft   consonant  being 
elided  in  pronounciation. 

*  It  may  be  necessary  to  state  distinctly  the  precise  significations  in 

14  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

All  that  we  are  justified  in  concluding  from  the  name  is, 
that  these  occupants  were  a  Gaelic  race  of  some  kind  or 
other.  In  another  Triad  we  meet  with  a  curious  allusion 
to  a  similar  event,  which  must  have  occurred  at  a  much 
later  period.  '•  The  tribe  of  Caswallawn  Law  Hir  put  the 
fetters  of  their  horses  on  their  feet  by  two  and  two,  in  fight- 
ing with  Serigi  W^^ddel,  at  Cerrig  y  Gwyddel,  in  Mon."^ 
In  the  Historia  Britonum,  attributed  to  Nennius,  we 
meet  with  another  account  of  the  expulsion  of  the  Gael. 
He  informs  us  that  Cunedda  and  his  eight  sons  came 
from  the  north,  from  a  province  known  as  Manau 
Guotodin,  and  expelled  the  Scots  from  Gwynedd,  Dyfed, 

which  the  terms  "  Celtic,"  "  Gaelic,"  &c,,  are  used ;  especially  as 
some  confusion  exists  in  people's  minds  on  the  subject.  The  common 
name  of  Celtic  is  applied  to  all  and  each  of  the  members  of  a  family 
of  nations,  distinguished  by  certain  phenomena  of  language  and 
organization.  This  is  the  ethnological  use  of  the  term,  and  is  the 
result  of  a  generalization  from  existing  facts.  It  must  carefully  be 
distinguished  from  the  historical  use  of  the  term,  as  applied  to  a  race 
whom  the  Greeks  and  Romans  found  in  various  parts  of  western 
Europe.  Whether  the  historical  Celts  were  Celtic  in  our  use  of  the 
word,  ^.  e.,  whether  they  possessed  the  distinctive  marks  of  language 
and  organization,  it  is  one  of  the  problems  of  ethnology  to  determine. 
Now  this  Celtic  family  is  found  to  divide  itself  into  two  branches,  one 
of  which,  at  present  occupying  the  Highlands,  Hebrides,  Man,  and 
a  great  part  of  Ireland,  in  a  tolerably  pure  state,  is  called  Gaelic. 
The  other,  in  possession  of  Wales,  Cornwall,  and  Brittany,  is  here,  as 
elsewhere,  for  convenience,  denominated  Cymraic.  A  closer  connexion 
is  found  to  subsist  between  the  Bretons  and  Cornish,  than  between 
either  of  those  people  and  the  Welsh.  These  facts  are  stated  here,  to 
avoid  needless  verbal  discussion  ;  although  they  must  be  famiUar  to 
the  majority  of  my  readers.  Those  who  wish  to  see  the  subject  of 
Celtic  ethnology  clearly  drawn  out,  will  do  well  to  read  Dr.  Prichard's 
"  Essay  on  the  Eastern  origin  of  the  Celtic  Languages ; "  and  a 
memoir,  by  M.  Adolphe  Pictet,  "  De  I'affinite  des  Langues  Celtiques 
avec  le  Sanscrit." 
5  Myv.  Arch.,  p.  62. 

GAEL    IN    GWYNEDD.  15 

and  from  the  districts  of  Gower  and  Kidwelly.^  Their 
expulsion  is  placed  about  the  close  of  the  fourth  century, 
and,  although  the  date  of  their  immigration  is  not  stated, 
we  are  left  to  infer  that  it  was  synchronical  with  the 
occupation  of  Dalriada  and  Man  by  their  countrymen/ 
To  the  testimony  of  Nennius  we  may  add  that  of  Rhydd- 
march,  the  author  of  the  life  of  St.  David,  as  a  writer 
whose  date  we  are  able  to  fix.  He  speaks  of  the  Saint 
being  persecuted,  in  his  hallowed  retreat  at  Menevia,  by 
a  certain  Scottish  tyrant,  by  name  Boia,  who  had  built 
himself  a  strong  castle,  overlooking  the  Rosy  Vale,  in 
which  St.  David  had  establised  himself  with  his  com- 
panions.^ The  name  of  this  regulus  is  preserved  in 
Clegyr  Foia,  a  precipitous  volcanic  rock,  surmounted  by 

6  "  Novissiine  venit  Damhoctor,  et  ibi  habitavit  cum  omni  genere 
suo  usque  hodie  in  Brittaniiiam.  Istorith,  Istorini  filius,  tenuit 
Dalrieta  cum  suis ;  Builc  autem  cum  suis  tenuit  Euboniam  insulam, 
et  alias  circiter  ;  filii  autem  Liethan  obtinuerunt  in  regione  Demetorum 
et  in  aliis  regionibus,  id  est,  Guir  et  Cetgueli,  donee  expulsi  sunt  a 
Cuneda  et  a  filiis  ejus  ab  omnibus  Brittanicis  regionibus." — Hist. 
Brit.,  \  14.  "  Mailcunus  magnus  rex  apud  Brittones  regnabat,  id 
est,  in  regione  Guenedotae,  quia  atavus  illius,  id  est,  Cunedag,  cum 
filiis  suis,  quorum  numerus  octo  erat,  venerat  prius  de  parte  sinistrali, 
id  est,  de  regione  quae  vocatur  Manau  Guotodin,  centum  quadraginta 
sex  annis  antequam  Mailcum  regnaret,  et  Scottos  cum  ingentissima 
clade  expulerunt  ab  istis  regionibus,  et  nusquam  reversi  sunt  ad 
habitandum." — Ibid.,  §  62. 

7  Nennius,  on  the  authority  of  the  "  peritissimi  Scottorum,"  places 
the  migration  of  the  Scots  from  Ireland  to  Dalriada,  in  the  sixth 
century  B.C.,  that  is  to  say,  in  the  present  case,  in  a  period  anterior 
to  history.  Mr.  Skene,  in  his  ingenious  Essay  on  the  Highlanders, 
dates  the  last  occupation  of  Dalriada,  a.d.  503,  and  appears  to  con- 
sider the  earlier  migrations  as  fabulous. — Vol.  i.,  pp.  15-20. 

8  Ricemarus  in  Vita  Sti  Davidis  apud  Whart.  Angl.  Sacr.  II. 
Giraldus  omits  the  words  "  Scottus  quidam,"  which  are  supplied  by 
Wharton  in  the  margin.     Rhyddmarch  lived  in  the  eleventh  century. 

16  VESTIGES     OF    THE 

an  ancient  earth-work,  within  a  quarter  of  a  mile  of  St. 
David's.  Perhaps  this  is  the  proper  place  to  observe 
that  the  Menapii  are  placed  by  Ptolemy  and  Richard  on 
the  coast  of  Ireland,  immediately  opposite  to  St.  David's 
Head,^  so  that  it  is  easy  to  imagine  the  settlement  of  a 
section  of  this  tribe  on  the  opposite  shore  of  Menevia,  or 
Menapia.  William  of  Malmesbury,  in  his  History  of 
Glastonbury,  gives  us  a  rather  more  detailed  account  of 
the  event  recorded  by  Nennius.  He  confirms  the  state- 
ments of  that  writer,  and  of  Rhyddmarch,  by  informing 
us  that  the  Gael  were  expelled  from  D^^fed,  as  well  as 

The  scanty  notices  we  have  already  met  with  concur 
in  recording  the  settlement  of  Gaelic  tribes,  at  an  un- 
known period,  in  various  parts  of  Wales,  especially  in 
Gwynedd,  and  their  expulsion  on  one,  or  more  than  one, 
occasion,  attributed  variously  to  Caswallawn  the  son  of 
Beli,  to  Caswallawn  Law  Hir,  and  the  family  of  Cunedda. 
We  must  now  turn  to  another  quarter  for  more  detailed 
information  with  respect  to  the  Gaelic  dominion  in 
Wales.  It  is  to  be  found  in  the  valuable  Miscellany 
collected  by  the  late  lolo  Morganwg,  and  recently 
published  by  the  Welsh  MSS.  Society.  The  notices 
which  it  gives  us  on  this  subject  are  fuller  than  those 
which  have  already  been  produced,  and  serve  in  many 
instances  to  explain  them  ;  on  the  other  hand,  it  must 
be  owned  that  they  frequently  contradict  each  other,  and 
rest,  of  course,  on  comparatively  slender  authority."     I 

9  They  are  called  by  Ptolemy,  Mavcnnoi. 

^  Gale,  Scriptores,  vol.  i.,  p.  295. 

2  I  am  content  to  take  these  documents  at  the  lowest  value  that  can 

GAEL    IN    GWYNEDD.  17 

shall  give  some  of  the  more  explicit  of  these  memorials 
in  full,  and  proceed  to  harmonise  them  as  far  as  it  is 
possible : — 

"  Three  Irish  invasions  took  place  in  Cambria ;  and  one  family, 
that  of  CuneddafWledi-i-,  delivered  the  country  from  the  three. 
The  first  occurred  in  Govver,  in  Glamorgan,  where  Caian  Wyddel 
and  his  sons  landed,  subjugated  the  country,  and  ruled  it  for 
eight  years ;  but  Cuneddaf  Wledig,  and  Urien  the  son  of  Cyn- 
farch,  subdued  and  slew  them  to  nine,  whom  they  drove  into  the 
sea ;  and  the  government  of  the  country  was  conferred  on  Urien 
the  son  of  Cynfarch,  having  been  constituted  a  kingdom  for  that 
purpose,  and  called  Rheged,  because  it  was  bestowed  unani- 
mously by  its  ancient  British  inhabitants  on  Urien,  in  free  gift, 
whence  he  was  called  Urien  Rheged.^ 

"  The  second  invasion  was  that  of  Aflech  Goronog,  who  seized 
upon  Garth  Mathrin  by  irruption ;  but,  having  married  Marchell, 
the  daughter  of  Tewdrig,  king  of  that  district,  he  acquired  the 
good  will  of  its  inhabitants,  and  obtained  the  country  in  marriage 
settlement  with  his  wife ;  and  there  his  descendants  still  remain, 
intermixed  with  the  natives. 

"  The  third  invasion  was  that  of  Don  (others  say  Daronwy), 
king  of  Lochlyn  (Scandinavia),  who  came  to  Ireland,  and  con- 
quered it;  after  which  he  led  sixty  thousand  Irish  and  Loch- 
lynians  to  North  Wales,  where  they  ruled  for  one  hundred  and 
twenty-nine  years ;  when  Caswallawn  Law  Hir  the  son  of  Einion 
Yrth,  the  son  of  Cunedda  Wledig,  entered  Mona,  wrested  the 
country  from  them,  and  slew  Serigi  Wyddel,  their  ruler,  at  a 

be  put  upon  them,  as  the  weight  of  my  proof  does  not  rest  upon  the 
authority  of  individual  passages,  but  upon  the  coincidence  of  a  large 
number,  and  indeed,  as  will  be  seen,  upon  their  very  discrejjancies — 
an  authority  which  cannot  well  be  destroyed,  except  by  the  supposition 
of  an  actual  forgery. 

3  In  the  published  translation  which  I  have  elsewhere  followed,  the 
last  sentence  runs  thus  : — "  whence  it  was  called  Urien  Rheged."  It 
is  probably  an  error  of  the  press. 

18  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

place  called  Llan-y-Gwyddyl,  in  Mona.  Other  sons  of  Cuneddaf 
Wledig  slew  them  also  in  North  Wales,  the  Cantred,  and  Powis, 
and  became  princes  of  those  countries.  Don  had  a  son  called 
Gwydion,  king  of  Mona  and  Arvon,  who  first  taught  literature 
from  books  to  the  Irish  of  Mona  and  Ireland  ;  whereupon  both 
these  countries  became  pre-eminently  famed  for  knowledge  and 

The  next  history  is  at  variance  with  the  last,  and  with 
itself:  its  chronology  is  altogether  hopeless: — 

"  A.D.  267,  Don,  king  of  Lochlyn  and  Dubhn,  led  the  Irish 
to  Gwynedd,  where  they  remained  one  hundred  and  twenty-nine 
years.  Gwydion  the  son  of  Don  was  highly  celebrated  for 
knowledge  and  science.  He  was  the  first  who  taught  the 
Cambro-Britons  to  perform  the  plays  of  illusion  and  phantasm, 
and  introduced  the  knowledge  of  letters  to  Ireland  and  Lochlyn ; 
but  after  the  Irish  and  Lochlynians  had  inhabited  North  Wales 
for  one  hundred  and  twenty-nine  years,  the  sons  of  Cuneddaf 
Wledig  came  there  from  the  north,  overcame  the  Irish  and  their 
confederates,  and  drove  them  in  flight  to  the  Isle  of  Man. 
They  were  slaughtered  at  the  battle  of  Cerrig  y  Gwyddyl ;  and 
Caswallawn  Law  Hir,  with  his  own  sword,  killed  Serigi  Wyddel 
the  son  of  Mwrchan,  the  son  of  Eurnach  the  Aged,  the  son  of 
Eilo,  the  son  of  Rhechgyr,  the  son  of  Cathbalig,  the  son  of 
Cathal,  the  son  of  Machno,  the  son  of  Einion,  the  son  of  Celert, 
the  son  of  Math,  the  son  of  Mathonwy,  the  son  of  Gv/ydion,  the 
son  of  Don,  king  of  Mona  and  Arvon,  the  Cantred,  and  of  Dub- 
lin and  Lochlyn,  who  came  to  the  isle  of  Mona  one  hundred 
and  twenty-nine  years  before  the  incarnation  of  Christ. 

"  Eurnach  the  Aged  fought,  sword  to  sword,  with  Owen 
Finddu,  the  son  of  Maxen  Wledig,  in  the  city  of  Ffaraon;  and 
he  slew  Owen,  who  also  slew  him."^ 

I  should  be  glad  to  know  whether  these  can  be 
regarded  as  perversions  of  Gaelic  names.     Again, — 

4  lolo  MSS.,  p.  467.  5  lUd.,  p.  471. 



"  After  the  departure  of  tlie  Romans  from  Britain,  Serigi  took 
upon  him  the  supreme  government  of  Mona,  Gwynedd,  and  the 
Cantred  ;  but  so  excessive  was  the  oppression  of  the  Irish  there 
that  messengers  were  sent  to  Cuneddaf  Wledig,  who  dispatched 
his  sons  to  Gwynedd,  and  they  put  them  to  flight;  except  in 
Mona,  where  they  had  become  a  distinct  nation,  with  Serigi  for 
their  king,  who  came  with  a  strong  force  to  Gwyrfai,  in  Arfon, 
to  fight  against  Caswallawn,  who  drove  them  back  to  Mona, 
where  they  were  slain  at  a  place  called  Cerrig  y  Gwyddyl ; 
whereupon  Caswallawn,  and  the  family  of  Cuneddaf,  placed 
saints  in  that  island,  to  teach  the  Christian  faith  there,  and  be- 
stowed lands  on  the  Cambro-British,  who  were  brought  there 
from  Dyfed,  Gower  and  Gwent ;  so  that  Mona  became  cele- 
brated for  its  saints,  wise  men,  and  pious  persons."^ 
I  shall  add  two  more, — 

"Gwydion  Wyddel,  the  son  of  Don,  the  son  of  Dar,  the  son  of 
Daronwy,  the  son  of  Urnach  Wyddel,  of  the  city  of  Ffaraon,  was 
slain  by  Owen  Finddu  the  son  of  Maxen  Wledig ;  this  Urnach 
led  twenty  thousand  Irish  from  Ireland  to  Gwynedd,  where  they 
landed,  and  where  they  and  their  descendants  remained  for  one 
hundred  and  twenty-nine  years. 

"  The  son  of  Urnach  was  Serigi  Wyddel,  who  was  slain  at 
Cerrig  y  Gwyddyl,  in  Mona,  by  Caswallawn  Law  Hir  the  son  of 
Einion  Yrth,  the  son  of  Cuneddaf  Wledig,  in  the  time  of  Owen 
the  son  of  Maxen  Wledig ;  and  upon  the  greensward  they  found 
a  male  infant,  who  was  Daronwy  the  son  of  Urnach  Wyddel, 
Serigi's  brother,  of  the  city  of  Ffaraon.  An  illustrious  chieftain 
who  resided  just  by,  commiserating  his  beauty  and  destitution, 
reared  him  up  as  one  of  his  children ;  but  he  became  eventually 
one  of  three  native  oppressors ;  for  he  confederated  with  the 
Irish,  and  seized  the  dominion  from  its  rightful  Cambro-British 
owners,  namely,'^ — " 
And  this, — 

6  lolo  MSB.,  p.  471.  '  Ibid.,  p.  472* 

20  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

"  Saint  Gynyr  of  Caer  Gawch  the  son  of  Gwyndeg,  the  son 
of  Saithenyn,  king  of  Maes  Gwyddno,  whose  land  was  over- 
flowed by  the  sea,  the  son  of  Saithenyn  Hen,  the  son  of  Flaws 
Hen,  king  of  Dyfed,  the  son  of  Gwrtherin,  a  prince  of  Rome, 
who  expelled  the  Gwydelians  from  Dyfed  and  Gower. 

"  Meyrig,  king  of  Dyfed,  the  son  of  Gwrthelin,  the  son  of 
Eudaf,  the  son  of  Flaws  Hen,  king  of  Dyfed,  the  son  of  Gwr- 
therin, a  nobleman  of  Rome,  who  expelled  the  Gwyddelians 
from  Gower  and  Dyfed."  ^ 

The  notices  before  us,  however  discordant  in  detail, 
coincide  in  the  main,  both  with  each  other,  and  with 
those  which  were  cited  before.  They  agree  so  far  in 
their  general  purport  that  we  cannot  doubt  their  relating 
to  the  same  event,  while  they  are  so  contradictory  in 
minor  points  as  to  prove,  beyond  question,  the  antiquity 
of  the  original  legend  which  is  embodied  in  them.  Thus 
their  very  discrepancies  are  a  confirmation  of  their  general 
authenticity,  and  at  the  same  time  allow  us  a  conside- 
rable latitude  in  interpreting  them.  It  is  evident  then 
that  a  tribe  of  Picts  or  Scots  were  in  possession  of  several 
portions  of  Wales,  in  an  age  within  the  domain  of  history  ;9 
that  they  had  settlements  in  the  country  between  the 
Neath  and  the  Tywy,'  in  Brecknockshire,"  and  probably 

s  IMd.,  p.  545.     Achau  y  Saint. 

9  It  is  not  necessary  here  to  decide  whether  the  Gael  of  North 
Wales  were  Picts  or  Scots,  or,  indeed,  whether  the  Picts  were  Gael 
or  Celts  at  all.  This  has  been,  as  is  well  known,  the  vexata  qucestio 
of  Scottish  antiquaries  for  many  years.  Those  who  wish  for  speci- 
mens of  the  spirit  in  which  it  has  been  discussed,  will  do  well  to  read 
the  quarrel  between  Monkbarns  and  Sir  Arthur  Wardour,  in  the 
"  Antiquary,"  or  (if  they  prefer  reality  to  fiction)  Ritson's  Annals  of 
the  Caledonians. 

1  See  Nennius,  as  already  quoted.     See  also  lolo  MSS.,  pp.  456-7. 

2  Ibid.,  p.  467.    Cf.,  p.  517.—"  Marchell,  the  daughter  of  Tewdrig, 

GAEL    IN    GWYNEUD,  "21 

in  western  Pembrokeshire  f  but  that  their  principal  ter- 
ritory was  in  North  Wales,  the  whole,  or  a  large  portion, 
of  which  they  occupied  at  an  early  period,  where  their 
power  was  not  entirely  extinguished  until  the  fifth  cen- 
tury. We  are  presented  with  lists  and  genealogies  of 
their  kings  and  leaders,  contradictory  to  the  last  degree, 
and  yet,  as  it  seems,  containing  germs  of  truth.  The 
Brecknockshire  colony  was  governed  by  one  Aflech, 
that  in  Gower  by  a  person  variously  designated  as  Caian,^ 
Glaian,^  and  Liethan*^ — distinct  forms,  as  it  would  seem, 
of  the  same  name.  In  another  document,  the  Gael  of 
Gower  are  said  to  have  been  led  by  Gilmwr  Rechdyr.^ 
But  it  is  concerning  the  Gael  of  Gwynedd  that  we  have 
the  most  copious  information,  and  it  is  to  them  that  our 
attention  must 'be  principally  directed.  We  have  a 
multiplicity  of  accounts  concerning  their  original  settle- 
ment in  the  country,  but  they  may  be  reduced  to  three 
several  legends. 

The  first  is  derived  from  a  source  we  have  not  hitherto 
touched.  In  the  genealogy  of  lestyn  ab  Gwrgant^  we 
are  informed  that,  in  the  reign  of  "  Annyn  the  Rugged 
the  son  of  Alafon,"  a  prince  of  Siluria,  seven  or  eight 
generations  before  the  Roman  invasion,  a  people  whom 
it  calls  "  y  Ddraig  Estron,"  or  the  "dragon  strangers,"^ 

was  the  wife  of  Anllech  Goronog,  who  was  king  of  Ireland,  and  their 
son  was  called  Brychan,  and  he  had  in  right  of  his  mother  the  terri- 
tory of  Garth  Mathrin,  which  he  called  after  his  own  name,  Bry- 
cheiniog."  ^  See  above,  pp.  15,  16. 

4  lolo  MSS.,  p.  467.  5  Glaian  Ecdawr,  ibid.,  p.  458. 

6  Nennius,  vt  sujjra.  '  lolo  MSS.,  p.  457. 

8  Ibid.,  p.  341. — This  document  is  not  cited  as  an  authority,  but  as 
containing  a  legend  different  from  any  that  we  have  met  with. 

9  The  appellation  is  a  curious  one,  but  it  may  sei-ve  to  interpret 

22  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

came  to  Britain  and  Ireland :  "  they  are  now  become 
quite  extinct  in  this  island,  although  they  still  entirely 
possess  Ireland,  where  they  are  termed  Gwyddelians." 
It  would  appear  at  first  sight  that  this  notice  refers  only 
to  the  settlement  of  the  Gael  in  North  Britain,  an  event 
commemorated  in  various  Triads,  and  placed  at  a  very 
early  period  ;  but  the  assertion  that  their  descendants 
were  extinct  in  this  island — having,  of  necessity,  refe- 
rence to  the  southern  portion  of  it — makes  it  probable 
that  the  history  speaks  of  a  Gaelic  colony  in  Gwynedd 
at  this  early  period.  And  this  is  confirmed  by  various 
passages  in  the  same  document.  It  informs  us  that,  in 
the  reign  of  the  same  Annyn,  "  a  new  king  sprang  up  in 
Gwynedd,  in  utter  violation  of  justice  ;"^  that  the  king 
of  Gwynedd  was  conquered  by  Lleyn,  a  descendant  of 
Annyn,  who  gave  name  to  the  country ;-  that  the  war  in 
Gwynedd  was  continued  by  Tegid,  the  brother  and  suc- 
cessor of  Lleyn,^  and  that  a  third  brother,  Llyr,  the 
grandfather  of  the  great  Caractacus,  finally  expelled  the 
Gael  from  Gwynedd.* 

The  second  legend  is  that  presented  to  us  in  the  Triads, 

certain  obscure  passages  of  Welsh  tradition.  In  one  of  the  Triads  the 
"  Dragon  of  Britain"  is  described  as  one  of  the  "  oppressions  of  the 
isle  of  Britain." — Myv.  Arch.,  ii.,  p.  59.  In  the  Mabinogi  of  Lludd 
and  Llefelys,  Britain  is  visited  by  three  simultaneous  afflictions,  one 
of  which  is,  the  invasion  of  the  Coritani,  and  another,  the  conflict  of 
two  dragons,  which  are  ultimately  buried  in  Dinas  Ffaraon,  subse- 
quently the  metropolis  of  the  Gael.  The  title  of  Draig  appears  to 
have  been  afterwards  applied  to  the  Welsh  princes  of  Gwynedd. 
Gildas  calls  Maelgwyn  "  draco  insularis,"  and  Gwalchmai  appHes 
to  Owen  Gwynedd  the  title  of  "  Dragon  of  Mona." — Evans'  Sj^eci- 
mens  of  Welsh  Bards,  p.  127. 

1  lolo  MSS.,  p.  341.        2  ii^id,^  p.  346.         3  jj^-^.        4  /j,-^. 

GAEL    IN     GWYNEDD.  23 

which  places  the  invasion  of  the  Gael,  under  Ganfacl, 
shortly  before  the  Roman  invasion,  and  attributes  their 
expulsion,  after  a  short  domination  of  twenty-nine  years, 
to  Caswallawn  the  son  of  Beli.^ 

The  third  legend  is  that  of  which  we  have  given  speci- 
mens already.  It  generally  describes  the  invaders  as  led 
by  Don  the  son  of  Daronwy,  who  is  represented  as  a  Scan- 
dinavian settler  in  Ireland.  They  are  in  possession  of  the 
country  for  a  hundred  and  twenty -nine  years,  although 
other  accounts  abbreviate  the  period  to  twenty-nine, 
while  another  extends  it  to  three  hundred  and  twenty- 
nine.^  Among  their  princes  we  meet  with  various  names 
distinguished  in  Welsh  romance,  Gwydion  the  son  of 
Don,  Arianrod  his  sister.  Math  the  son  of  Mathonwy, 
the  Palug  Cat,  with  other  personages  wearing  a  very 
mythological  aspect.  Gwydion  is  invariably  represented 
as  a  wise  man,  and  sometimes  as  a  wizard.  In  one 
Triad  he  is  said  to  have  learned  illusion  from  Math  ab 
Mathonwy,  who  is  denominated  one  of  the  three  "  men 
of  illusion  and  phantasy." '^  The  Mabinogi  of  Math  gives 
us  a  specimen  of  his  performances,  and  those  of  his  in- 
structor ;  and  we  are  elsewhere  informed  that  his  magic 
sleights  secured  him  the  possession  of  his  principality.^ 
Another  Triad  unites  him  with  Idris  the  Giant,  and 
Gwyn  the  son  of  Nudd,  under  the  class  of  chief  astrono- 
mers.^ Elsewhere  we  are  told  that  he  was  highly  cele- 
brated for  knowledge  and  sciences,  that  he  introduced 
the  knowledge  of  letters  to  Ireland  and  Lochlyn,^  and  to 

5  Myv.  Arch.,  ii.,  p.  58.  «  lolo  MSS.,  p.  609. 

7  Myv.  Arch.,  ii.,  p.  71.  ^  lolo  MSS.,  p.  421. 

9  Myv.  Arch.,  ii.,  p.  71.  '  lolo  MSS.,  p.  267. 

24  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

the  Irish  of  Mona,  whereupon  these  countries  (Ireland 
and  Anglesey)  became  pre-eminently  famed  for  know- 
ledo-e  and  saints."  His  court  was  the  resort  of  bards  and 
philosophers,  and  was  visited  by  Merddyn,^  as  that  of  his 
son  was  by  Taliesin.^  Both  of  these  assertions,  it  is 
needless  to  say,  are  palpable  anachronisms ;  but  they 
show  the  light  in  which  Gwydion  was  regarded  in  later 
times.  An  obscure  memorial  of  him  in  the  Achau  Saint^ 
appears  to  imply  that  he  was  the  means  of  converting 
the  Gael  of  Gwynedd  to  Christianity,  and  connects  him 
in  some  way  with  the  Pelagian  heresy.  But  he  appears 
elsewhere  in  a  more  marvellous  form.  His  path  is  in  the 
sky,  and  may  be  seen  in  the  galaxy.  His  sister,  the 
Lady  of  the  Silver  Wheel,  holds  her  court  among  the 
stars.  On  occasion,  like  Apollo,  he  plays  the  part  of  a 
herdsman,  and  keeps  thrice  seven  thousand  kine  above 
the  Conwy ."^  Enough  has  been  said  to  show  that 
Gwydion  is  more  than  half  a  mythic  character,  and  that 
he  is  the  great  hero  of  the  Gaelic  legend. 

Math,  whose  exact  relation  to  Gwydion  it  is  rather 

2  lolo  MSS.,  p.  468.  3  Ihid,  p.  466.  *  Ibid,  p.  467. 

5  "  Mor,  the  son  of  Morieii,  brought  baptism  and  faith,  and  would 
not  bring  baptism  to  the  country  of  Gwynedd.  The  first  that  did  so 
was  Gwydion,  the  son  of  Don,  king  of  Llychlyn,  who  was  king  of 
the  country  of  Gwynedd,  during  the  time  the  Gwyddelians  bore  rule 
in  Gwynedd."— /&«/.,  p.  551. 

6  Trioedd  Ynys  Prydain.  Myv.  Arch.,  ii.,  p.  10.—"  The  three 
herdsmen  of  tribes  of  the  isle  of  Britain,  .  .  the  second,  Gwydion 
the  son  of  Don,  who  kept  the  cattle  of  the  tribe  of  Gwynedd,  above 
the  Conwy  ;  and  in  this  herd  were  twenty-and-one  thousand."  Baxter 
asserts,  without  giving  his  authority,  that  the  Cangi  wei'e  a  pastoral 
race,  subject  to  other  tribes. — Gloss.  Ant.  Brit.,  p.  73,  sub  voce 



difficult  to  determine,  held  his  court  at  Caer  Dathyl,  and 
carried  on  a  war  with  the  king-  of  Dyfed.'"'  Another 
warrior,  Urnach,  or  Eurnach,  tlie  Agcd,^  who  in  one 
record  is  represented  as  the  original  invader,  and  the 
great-grandfather  of  Don,  is  elsewhere  described  as  fight- 
ins:  sino-le-handed  with  Owen  the  son  of  the  Emperor 
Maximus,  a  contest  which  was  fatal  to  both.  He  is 
also  called  Brynach,  and  is  said  to  have  been  the  first 
king  of  Gwynedd  converted  to  Christianity.''  His  do- 
minions extended  over  the  western  part  of  North  Wales, 
Mona  and  Man,  and  he  held  his  court  at  Dinas  Ffaraon 
in  Snowdon. 

His  son  Serigi  closes  the  list  of  the  Gaelic  chiefs  of 
Gwynedd.9  The  Welsh,  who  had,  as  it  seems,  for  some 
time  pressed  hard  upon  them,  and  apparently  limited 
their  dominions  to  Mona,  ultimately  overcame  them,  and 
slew  their  leader  at  Holyhead  under  the  command  of 
Caswallawn  Law  Hir,  the  grandson  of  Cunedda  Wledig, 
whose  family  had  emigrated  from  North  Britain  for  the 
express  purpose  of  rescuing  Wales  from  the  oppression  of 
the  invaders. 

In  the  names  of  Eurnach,  Serigi  and  Caswallawn,  we 
seem  to  have  an  approach  to  authentic  history ;  and  we 
may  perhaps  conclude  that,  as  far  at  least  as  the  termi- 
nation of  their  empire  is  concerned,  this  legend  gives  us 
the  real  account.  We  can  hardly  doubt  that  the  story 
which  ascribes  their  expulsion  to  the  celebrated  Cassi- 
vellaunus  arises  merely  from  the  confusion  of  two  per- 
sonages bearing  the  same  name  ;  and  the  legend  referred 

6  Mabinogi  of  Math.         7  lolo  MSS.,  p.  471.         »  lUd.,  p.  474. 
9  One  legend  ascribes  the  original  invasion  to  Serigi. 


26  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

to  in  the  genealogy  of  lestyn  is  probably  an  even  more 
corrupted  form  of  the  present  one. 


Before  we  proceed  to  consider  the  details  of  the  con- 
quest of  Gwynedd  by  the  family  of  Cunedda,  it  will  be 
well  to  examine  the  chronology  of  their  occupation  and 
evacuation  of  that  country  by  the  Gwyddyl — to  see, 
in  fact,  whether  anything  can  be  made  of  it.  We  will 
assume  that  the  termination  of  their  dominion  is  fixed  by 
the  accession  of  Caswallawn  Law  Hir,  who  is  said  to  have 
reigned  over  North  Wales  from  443  to  517.  This  date 
is  rendered  probable  by  that  of  his  son  Maelgwyn,  which 
is  better  known.  The  latter  was  contemporary  with 
Gildas,  the  first  British  historian,  if  he  should  not  rather 
be  called  a  preacher,  who  was  born  about  the  year  516, 
and  wrote  in  the  middle  of  the  sixth  century.  For  the 
invasion  of  the  Gwyddyl  we  find  various  dates  assigned. 
The  genealogy  of  lestyn  ab  Gwrgant  places  it,  as  we 
have  seen,  at  an  indefinitely  early  period.^  The  Triads 
fix  the  invasion  of  Ganfael  Wyddel  in  the  first  century 
B.C."  A  record  which  we  have  already  quoted^  fixes  the 
invasion  in  the  year  267  a.d.,  and,  almost  in  the  same 
breath,  in  129  b.c.  In  another  document  we  find  the 
following  chronological  notices  : — 

"  In  294  A.D.,  the  Irish  Picts,  who  had  migrated  from  Beitwy, 
were  slain."  .  .  "  In  307  a  great  pestilence  prevailed,  and  a 
fearfiil  number  of  full-grown  males  and  females  died  in  conse- 
quence, together  with  more  than  half  the  children  of  the  island ; 

1  See  above,  p.  21.    2  p,  13.     3  lol©  MSS.,  p.  471,  cited  above,  p.  18. 

GAEL    IN    GWYNEDD.  27 

in  consequence  of  which,  the  invasion  of  the  Irish  Picts  took 
place  in  the  north,  and  that  of  tlic  pike-bearing  Irish  and  Loch- 
lynians  in  Anglesca,  Arvon,  and  the  Commot."  .  ,  "  In  314 
scarcity  and  famine  took  place  ;  the  Irish  and  Lochlynians  hav- 
ing spoiled  the  corn  lands,"  "  In  339  many  of  the  Irish  ban- 
ditti were  taken."  "  About  this  period  [a.d.  380]  Morien  the 
son  of  Argad  the  Bard  flourishedj  ...  he  denied  Baptism 
and  the  Sacrifice,  .  .  whence  arose  great  hatred,  contentions, 
and  wars." 

We  have  already  seen  that  Morien  was  supposed  to  be 
contemporary  with  Gwydion. 

"  In  400  the  Irish  Picts  came  to  Cambria,  and  committed 
atrocious  depredations ;  but  at  last  they  were  vanquished,  slain 
unsparingly,  and  driven  back  beyond  the  sea  to  their  original 
country."  "  In  410  severe  diseases  and  great  mortality  pre- 
vailed, occasioned  by  the  yellow  pestilence,  which  arose  from  the 
dead  bodies  that  remained  unburied." 

This  pestilence  is  connected  with  the  Gaelic  invasion 
by  the  Triads. 

"  In  430  the  Irish  Picts  made  a  descent  on  Anglesea  and 
Arvon,  and  were  joined  by  the  Irish  of  those  countries,  in  com- 
bined hostility  to  the  crown  of  the  island  of  Britain ;  but  they 
were  opposed  by  the  kings  and  princes  of  Cambria,  whose  cause 
was  espoused  by  the  two  saints,  namely,  Germanus  and  Lupus ; 
and  they  prayed  to  God,  who  .  .  made  them  victorious 
over  their  enemies."  "  In  436  ...  a  terrible  pestilence 
occurred  in  Britain;  .  .  whereupon  the  Irish  Picts  came  to 
Cambria ;  but,  through  the  prayers  of  the  saints,  they  were 

It  is  obvious  that  such  circumstantial  chronology,  in 
relation  to  an  age  of  which  so  little  is  known,  cannot  be 
trusted  in  detail.     In  fact,  the  only  positive  conclusion 

*  lolo  MSS.,  pp.  418-422.     Cf.  Bede,  Hist.  Eccl.  i.,  c.  20. 

28  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

which  we  can  draw  from  it  is,  that  the  Irish  domination 
terminated  about  the  middle  of  the  fifth  century,  that  is, 
about  the  period  assigned  to  Caswallawn  Law  Hir.     It 
does  not  give  us  a  hint  of  the  commencement  of  their 
empire,  but  appears  to  imply  that  it  was  kept  up  by 
continual  succours  from  their  brethren  in  Ireland,  or 
elsewhere.^     We  have  however  further  data,  as  it  would 
appear,  for  determining  the  time  of  their  arrival,  in  the 
duration  of  their  power,  as  derived  from  the  Triads  and 
other  sources.    This  we  have  already  seen  stated  variously 
as  twenty-nine,  one  hundred  and  twenty-nine,  and  three 
himdred  and  twenty-nine  years.    These  numbers  bear  so 
evident  a  relation  to  one  another,  that  they  seem  clearly 
to  be  different  versions  of  the  same  legend ;  while  they 
occur  in  accounts  so  contradictory,  as  to  prove  the  anti- 
quity of  the  legend  from  which  they  are  derived.     They 
are  so  circumstantial  that  they  must  mean  something, 
while  they  are  far  too  circumstantial  to  be  received  with- 
out caution.     We  may  fairly  assume  that  one  of  the 
three  was  found  in  the  original  story,  and  that  the  others 
are  perversions  of  it.     And  we  may  probably  conclude 
that  to  be  the  original  number  which  bears  the  clearest 
marks  of  being  artificial,  or  that  which  there  was  most 
reason  to  change  in  subsequent  versions  of  the  story. 
Now  it  appears  more  natural  to  lengthen  the  period  than 
to  shorten  it,  simply  for  the  purpose  of  allowing  more 
time  for  the  events  which  confused  traditions,  or  the  in- 
genuity of  poets,  had  made  to  occur  within  it.     And  the 
shortest   of  these   periods   can  with   least  difficulty  be 

5  The  events  of  430  particularly  deserve  notice,  as  the  pre-existence 
of  the  Gael  in  Mona  and  Arvon  is  expressly  mentioned. 

GAEL    IN    GWYNEDD.  29 

regarded  as  artificial.     Tlie  partiality  of  the  Welsh  for 
the  triad  is  too  well  known  to  need  proof,  and  it  would 
necessarily    extend    to    the    number    thirty.      Now,    in 
twenty-nine,  we  have  three  decades  minus  one ;  or,   if 
we  please  to  put  it  in  this  way — the  Irish  having  ruled 
in  Gwynedd  for  nine-and-twenty  years,  were  driven  out 
in  the  thirtieth.    This  view  of  twenty-nine  as  a  mythical 
or   mystical   number,  is  confirmed  in  some  degree  by 
a  curious  story  published  in  the  lolo  MSS.,  of  "  Einion 
the  son  of  Gwalchmai  of  Anglesey,  and  the  Lady  of  the 
Greenwood,  which  was  a  witch,  or  female  goblin,  that 
fascinated   him  for  nine-and-twenty  years,   and  of   the 
manner  in  which  he  was  liberated  from  the  illusions  and 
bands  she  had   cast  over  him.'"'      Nennius  also,   who 
delights  in  triads  and  round  numbers,  tells  us  a  story  of 
three  sons  of  a  certain  knight  of  Spain,  who  were  utterly 
destroyed,  with  nine-and-twenty  ships  of  war,  as  they 
were  besieging  a  tower  of  glass  in  the  middle  of  the  sea.''' 
This  explanation  may  appear  fanciful  to  those  who  are 
not  accustomed  to  observe  the  manner  in  which  numbers 
are  manufactured   in   mythological   history.     The   only 
object  of  it  is  to  destroy  the  apparent  credibility  of  these 
numbers   arising    from   their    extremely   circumstantial 
character,  by  showing  how  easy  it  is  to  account  for  their 
origin.     Whether  this  be  the  true  explanation  or  not,  we 
may  be  allowed  to  have  grave  doubts  as  to  the  value  of 
such  precise  dates  in  the  history  of  an  age  of  which  so 
little  is  really  known.      The  only  result,  then,  of  our 
chronological    examination   is,    that    we    can    have    no 
certain  chronology  in  the  matter ;  that  the  close  of  the 

6  lolo  MSS.,  p.  591.  7  Nennius,  Hist.  Brit.,  §  13. 

30  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

Gaelic  dominion  in  North  Wales  took  place  about  the 
middle  of  the  fifth  century  ;  and  that  we  are  at  liberty  to 
place  its  commencement  in  an  indefinitely  early  period. 
Indeed,  we  are  not  without  authority  for  supposing  that 
it  took  place  at  a  date  anterior  to  any  facts  recorded  in 
the  history  of  this  country.^  We  shall  soon  see  reasons 
for  wishing  to  extend  the  duration  of  their  sovereignty 
beyond  the  limits,  not  of  the  twenty-nine  years  only,  but 
of  the  hundred  and  twenty-nine. 


We  have  been  occupied  with  the  limits  of  duration 
assio-ned  to  the  Gaelic  domination,  let  us  now  consider  its 
extent  in  point  of  space.  I  do  not  now  speak  of  the  minor 
settlements  in  South  Wales,  but  of  that  great  principality 
in  Gwynedd,  of  which  we  may  regard  Gwydion  the 
son  of  Don  as  the  mythic  representative,  and  of  which 
Serip-i  the  son  of  Urnach  was  the  last  ruler.  The 
authorities  which  we  have  already  had  occasion  to  con- 
sult, are  rather  vague  in  their  information  as  to  the 
limits  of  their  territory.  They  speak  in  general  terms 
of  an  invasion  and  occupation  of  Gwynedd,"  or  in  more 
precise  language,  of  Mona,  Arvon  and  the  Cantred,^ 
which  appears  to  be  identical  with  Merioneth ;  others 
speak  of  Mona,  Gwynedd  (used,  as  it  would  seem,  in  a 
limited  sense)  and  the  Cantred,  or  Commot ;  and  one 
document,  which  we  have  already  quoted,  speaks  of  their 

^  See  above,  p.  21. 

9  Trioedd  Ynys  Pryd.    Myv.  Arch,  ii.,  p.  58.    lolo  MSS.,  p.  468. 

1  Ibid.,  471. 

GAEL    IN    GAVYNEDD.  31 

being  overcome  by  the  sons  of  Cunedda,  in  Mona, 
Gwynedd,  the  Cantred  and  Powys.-  We  also  find  the 
isle  of  Man  annexed  to  their  dominions,  and  spoken  of 
in  such  a  way  as  to  leave  no  doubt  that  it  formed  at  one 
time  part  of  the  great  principality  of  Gwynedd.'  It  is 
to  be  observed,  however,  that  Mona  is  spoken  of  as  their 
principal  seat,  as  it  was  certainly  the  district  in  which 
they  maintained  their  power  to  the  latest  period,  and 
hence  in  the  ordinary  histories  of  Wales  their  empire  is 
generally  spoken  of  as  a  temporary  occupation  of  Mona, 
or  at  most  of  Mona  and  Arvon.*  We  shall  be  able 
however  to  ascertain  the  limits  of  their  territory  with 
greater  accuracy,  if  we  examine  the  accounts  handed  down 
to  us  of  their  overthrow  and  expulsion.  The  most 
minute  record  is  contained  in  the  following  extract  from 
one  of  the  genealogies  termed  Achau  Saint  :^ — 

"  Cunedda  Wledig  sent  sons  to  Gwynedd  against  the  Gvvydd- 
elians,  which  came  with  Serigi  the  Gwyddehan,  to  Anglesey,  and 
other  places,  and  had  taken  the  greatest  portion  of  that  country 
from  the  inhabitants,  when  there  were  no  princes  over  them  ; 
and  the  sons  of  Cunedda  led  the  Cymry,  and  expelled  the 
Gwyddelians  from  the  country,  and  slew  them,  making  prisoners 
of  such  as  had  their  lives  spared  ;  then  the  men  of  Gwynedd 
gave  those  princes  possession  of  the  lands  they  had  w^on ; 
namely : — 

"Tybiawn  the  son  of  Cunedda  Wledig,  won  the  Cantref, 
routing  the  Gw  yddelians,  and  in  that  battle  he  was  slain,  and 
the  nobles  of  the  country  conferred  the  sovereignty  on  Meirion 
his  son,  and  he  was  called  Meirion  of  Meirionydd. 

"  Arwystl  the  son  of  Cunedda  Wledig,  won  a  district,  which 

2  lolo  MSS.,  p.  468.  3  jMcl,  p.  474. 

*  It  is  thus  represented  by  Lhoyd  and  Warrington. 
5  lolo  MSS.,  p.  521. 

32  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

was  given  him,  which  he  called  after  his  own   name,  and  he 
himself  is  called  Arvvystl  of  Arwystli, 

"  Ceredig  the  son  of  Cunedda  Wledig,  expelled  the  foreigners 
from  the  Cantref  of  Tyno  Coch,  and  received  it  as  an  inheritance, 
and  called  it  Ceredigion  after  his  own  name,  and  he  himself  is 
called  Ceredio-  of  Ceredioion. 

"  Dunawd  the  son  of  Cunedda  Wledig,  delivered  the  Commot 
of  Ardudwy,  in  Eifionydd,  and  received  it  as  a  possession,  and 
called  it  Dinodyng  after  his  own  name,  and  he  is  called  Dunawd 
of  Dinodyng. 

"  Edeyrn  the  son  of  Cunedda  Wledig,  delivered  the  country, 
which  he  called  Edeyrnion  from  his  own  name,  of  which  he 
received  possession,  and  he  is  called  Edeyrn  of  Edeyrnion. 

"  Mael  the  son  of  Cunedda  Wledig,  had  Maelienydd,  which 
he  named  after  his  own  name,  and  he  is  called  Mael  of  Maeli- 
enydd, in  remembrance  of  his  act  in  delivering  the  country. 

"  Dogvael  the  son  of  Cunedda  Wledig,  had  the  country  called 
after  him  Dogveilyng,  and  he  is  called  Dogvael  of  Dogveilyng. 

"  Rhufawn  the  son  of  Cunedda  Wledig,  had  the  Cantref,  which 
after  him  was  called  Rhyfoniog,  and  he  is  called  Rhufawn  of 
Rhufoniog,  and  also  Rhun  Hael  of  Rhufoniog,  because  he  was 
the  most  generous  man  in  Wales  in  his  times. 

"  Oswal  the  sDn  of  Cunedda  Wledig,  had  the  country  called 
after  him  Osweilyng,  and  he  is  called  Oswal  of  Osweihawn,  and 
that  country  is  the  town  of  Oswestry  and  its  precincts. 

"  Clwyd  the  son  of  Cunedda  Wledig,  had  the  vale  of  Clwyd. 

"  Cynir,  Meilin,  and  Meigir,  the  sons  of  Gvvron,  the  son  of 
Cunedda  Wledig,  went  with  Caswallawn  Law  Hir  their  cousin  to 
expel  the  Gwyddelian  Picts  from  the  island  of  Anglesey,  where 
they  had  fled  from  the  sons  of  Cunedda,  and  had  established 
themselves  in  that  island ;  and  after  furious  fighting  they  drove 
the  Gwyddelians  out  of  Anglesey,  and  Caswallawn  Law  Hir  slew 
Serigi  Wyddel  there,  with  his  own  hand.  That  Serigi  was  the 
prince  of  the  Gwyddelian  Picts,  which  had  governed  Gwynedd 
from  the  time  of  the  Emperor  Maximus.     And  after  expelling 

GAEL    IN    GWYNEDD.  33 

the  foreigners  from  Anglesey,  the  Cymry  took  courage,  and 
drove  them  out  of  every  part  of  Gwynedd,  and  none  of  them 
remained  in  the  country,  except  such  as  were  made  captives  for 
ever.  And  thus  did  Cunedda  Wledig  obtain  the  sovereignty  of 
Wales,  and  his  sons  the  lands  before  mentioned, 

"  And  Caswallawn  Law  Hir  the  son  of  Einion  Yrth,  the  son  of 
Cunedda  Wledig,  founded  a  church  to  God  in  the  place  where 
he  obtained  a  victory  over  his  enemies,  and  called  it  Llan  y 
Gvvyddyl,  and  which  is  in  Anglesey,  and  now  called  Cerrig  y 

"  Einion  the  king  the  son  of  Einion  Yrth,  the  son  of  Cunedda 
Wledig.     His  church  is  in  Lleyn,  of  which  country  he  was  king." 

A  somewhat  different  account  is  given  in  the  description 
of  Wales  prefixed  to  Lhoyd's  history  : — 

"  The  sons  of  Cunetha  being  arriued  in  North  Wales,  (as  well 
I  thinke  being  driuen  by  the  Saxons,  as  for  their  inheritance,) 
diuided  the  countrie  betwixt  them.  And  first,  Meireaon  the 
Sonne  of  Tibiaon,  the  sonne  of  Cunetha,  had  Cantref  Meireaon 
to  his  part.  Arustel  ap  Cunetha  had  Cantref  Arustly.  Caredic 
ap  Cunetha  had  Caerdigion,  now  Caerdigan  Shire.  Dunod  had 
Cantref  Dunodic.  Edeyrn  had  Edeyrnion.  Mael  had  Dynmael. 
Coel  had  Coeleyon.  Doguael  had  Dogueilyn.  Ryvaon  had 
Ryuonioc,  now  Denbighland.  Eineon  Yrth  had  Caereneon,  in 
Powys.  Vssa  had  Maesvswalht,  now  Oswestree.  .  .  Maelor 
the  Sonne  of  Gwron,  sonne  to  Cunedha,  had  Maeloron."^ 

I  shall  presently  have  occasion  to  criticise  these  pas- 
sages in  detail,  and  to  compare  them  with  other  accounts 
of  the  same  event.  My  only  object  in  citing  them  at 
present  is,  to  show  the  extent  of  country  over  which  the 
Gaelic  sway  may  have  extended  at  various  times.  It  is 
obvious  that  the  various  districts  which  it  enumerates 
were  regarded  as  the  possessions  of,  and  deriving  their 

6  This  account  is  adopted  in  the  Hanes  Cymru  of  Carnhuanawc. 


34  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

appellation  from,  the  legendary  heroes  of  the  Cuneddian 
race,  whose  names  stand  at  the  head   of  many  Welsh 
genealogies.     We  may  also  assume  that  all  the  regions 
connected  by  tradition  with  that  family  were  supposed,  as 
they  are   here   asserted,  to   have   been   won   from   the 
strangers.     Now  these  districts  would  appear  to  include 
the   whole   of  Anglesey,    Caernarvon,    Merioneth,    and 
Cardiganshire,  with  a  portion  at  least  of  Denbighshire, 
Montgomeryshire,  and  Radnorshire.     It  would  include 
the  entire  coast  from  the  Clwyd  to  the  Teifi,^  and  would 
be  bounded  to  the  east  by  the  Clwydian  and  Berwyn 
mountains,  and  the  wild  hills  of  Montgomeryshire  and 
Radnorshire.^    It  would  also  appear  from  this  document, 
and  others,  that  their  power  was  more  complete,  or  lasted 
longer,  in  some  parts  than  in  others,  and  most  of  all  in 
Mona,  although  they  continued  to  exist  elsewhere  in 
isolated  positions  even  after  the  overthrow  of  Serigi. 

This  tradition  receives  a  remarkable  confirmation  from 
modern  topography,  a  source  of  historical  information 
to  which  too  little  attention  has  been  paid  in  general, 
and  particularly  in  the  present  instance.  Rowland,  the 
author  of  the  "  Mona  Antiqua  Restaurata,"  records  the 
expulsion  of  the  Irish  from  Anglesey,  of  which  he  seems 
to  consider  them  at  one  time  the  sole  occupants. ^     He 

7  Since  this  passage  was  written,  I  have  been  informed  that 
Ceredigion  extended  to  the  Preseleu  mountains,  a  fact  which  the 
features  of  the  country  and  the  present  ecclesiastical  divisions  had  led 
me  to  suspect. 

8  Some  parts,  indeed,  of  this  territory  lie  beyond  the  limits  we  have 

9  "  The  Irish,  under  Sirig  the  Rover,  who  once  indeed  drove  the 
inhabitants  out  of  the  island,  were  soon  after  themselves  outed  and 
expelled  by  Melirion  ap  Meircliion,  and  his  cousin  Caswallawn  law 

GAEL    IN    GVVYNEDD.  35 

tells  US  also  that  the  circular  foundations  of  houses,  like 
those  in  Avhat  we  are  accustomed  to  call  British  towns, 
were  ordinarily  known  as  Cytiau  r'  Gwyddelod,  the  cabins 
of  the  Gael.^  Yet  he  does  not  seem  to  connect  these 
facts  in  any  way  ;  on  the  contrary,  he  has  recourse  to  a 
very  unsatisfactory  argument  to  explain  away  the  apparent 
connexion.  I  believe  that  name  is  in  common  use  in 
various  parts  of  North  Wales  at  this  day;  and  one 
instance  certainly  exists  in  Anglesey.  But  we  find  in 
various  parts  of  Wales,  the  word  Gwyddel  entering  into 
composition  in  the  local  names,  frequently  in  very  re- 
markable positions.  I  give  a  list  of  these  which  I  have 
been  able  to  discover,  and  it  is  probable  that  more  are  to 
be  found. 
In  Anglesey, — 

Forth  y  Gwyddel,  in  Holyhead  Island ; 

Pentre  Gwyddal,  also  in  Holyhead  Island ; 

Cytiau  'r  Gvvydd'lod,  about  a  mile  to  the  south  of  the  cause- 
way leading  to  Holyhead  Island. 

To  these  we  may  add  Cerrig  y  Gwyddel,  Llan  y  Gwyddel,  or 
Capel  y  Gwyddel,  the  ancient  name  of  Holyhead. 
In  Caernarvonshire, — 

Pentre  Gwyddel,  on  the  shore  between  Conway  and  Abergele; 

Bwlch  y  Gwyddel,  between  Capel  Curig  and  Llanberis ; 

Mynydd  y  Gwyddel ;  and, 

Trwyn  y  Gwyddel,  at  the  extreme  promontory  of  Lleyn. 

hir,  who  killed  the  said  Sirig,  at  a  place  called  Cappel  Gwyddil  as 
tradition  hath  it." — p.  37. 

1  "  There  are,  to  this  day,  visibleiupon  our  heaths  and  Rhosydh,  the 
marks  and  footsteps  of  these  booths  and  cabbins,  in  the  oval  and  circular 
trenches  which  are  seen  in  great  plenty  dispersed  here  and  there  on 
such  grounds  .  .  .  they  are  called  Cyttie  r'  gwyddelod,  viz.,  the 
Irish  men's  cottages." — p.  27. 

36  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

In  Merionethshire, — 

Muriau  'r  Gwyddelod,  ancient  fortifications  near  Harlech ; 

Muriau  'r  Gwddel,  near  Maentwrog; 

Gwyddel-fynydd  near  Towyn ; 

In  Montgomeryshire, — 

Dol-y-Gwyddyl,  in  the  hills  between  Machynlleth  and  Llan- 

In  Radnorshire, — 

Crugyn  Gwyddel,  in  the  mountainous  district  west  of  Rhayader. 
In  Cardiganshire, — 

Waun  y  Gwyddel ;  and, 

Nant  y  Gwyddel,  about  six  miles  west  of  Plinlimon ; 

Wern  y  Gwyddel  near  Tregaron ; 

Llwyn  y  Gwyddyl,  near  the  ruins  of  Strata  Florida ;  ^ 

Cefn  Gwyddel,  near  the  sea-coast,  at  no  great  distance  from 
New  Quay ;  a  farm  in  the  neighbourhood  bears  the  significant 
name  of  Lletty  'r  Cymro  ; 

Pant  yr  Wyddeles,  four  or  five  miles  from  the  place  last  men- 
tioned, but  further  inland. 
In  Pembrokeshire, — 

Trewyddel,  on  the  coast  between  Cardigan  and  Newport ; 

Llwyn  Gwyddel ;  and. 

Pant  Gwyddel,  both  a  httle  to  the  south  of  the  Preseleu  moun- 
In  Glamorganshire, — 

Twll  y  Gwyddel,  in  the  hills  separating  the  vales  of  the  Tawe 
and  Llychwr. 

-  The  genealogy  of  lestyn  informs  us  that  Meyryg,  a  prince  of 
Siluria,  marched  against  the  Irish  Picts,  and  defeated  them,  "  but  was 
killed  by  an  Irishman  conceale(f  in  a  wood,  since  called  Ystrad 
Meyryg."— JoZo  MSS.,  p.  352.  Llwyn  Gwyddyl,  the  Irishman's 
Grove,  is  within  a  short  distance  of  Ystrad  Meyrig.  The  tradition  is 
valuable,  although  this  Meyryg  is  placed  in  a  very  apocryphal  age. 

GAEL    IN    GWYNEDD.  37 

In  Monmouthshire, — 

Pentre  Gwyddel,  near  the  Usk,  a  little  below  Abergavenny, 
It  can  hardly  be  conceived  that  a  score  of  places 
should  exist  in  eight  small  counties,  bearing  so  signifi- 
cant a  name,  by  a  mere  accident ;  especially  when  we 
know  that  the  name  coincides  so  remarkably  with  ascer- 
tained facts  in  the  early  history  of  this  country.  It  is 
quite  true  that  one,  or  two,  or  three,  or  four  of  them 
might  be  the  result  of  events  of  later  occurrence ;  but  it 
is  impossible  to  believe  that  the  word  should  occur  so 
frequently,  unless  there  had  been  very  numerous  colli- 
sions, and  at  very  various  points,  between  the  Gael  and 
the  Cymry;  and  we  are  unable  to  assign  any  later  period 
for  these  events  than  that  of  the  great  Gaelic  occupation 
we  are  now  dealing  with.^     The  argument,  however,  is 

3  It  is  true  that  isolated  invasions  took  place  at  a  much  later  period, 
as  in  the  following  instances  recorded  by  Lhoyd : — 

A.D.  914. — "  The  men  of  Develyne  did  destroie  the  ile  of  Mon  or 
Anglesey."  "  About  the  same  time  Leofred  a  Dane,  and  Gruffyth 
ap  Madoc,  came  from  Ireland  with  a  great  armie  to  Snowdon." 

A.D.  958. — "  Abloic  king  of  Ireland  landed  in  Mon,  and  having 
biu-nt  Holyhed,  spoiled  the  countrie  of  Lhyyn." 

A.D.  966. — "  Roderike  the  sonne  of  Edwal  Voel  was  slame  by  the 
Irishmen,  by  whom  Aberfraw  was  destroied." 

A.D.  1031. — "  The  Irish-Scots  entred  Southwales,  by  the  meanes 
of  Howel  and  Meredyth,  the  sonnes  of  Edwyn  ap  Eneon  ap  Owen  ap 
Howel  Dha,  who  hired  them  against  Rytherch  ap  lestyn." 

A.D.  1041. — "  Conan  the  sonne  of  lago,  with  the  power  of  Alfred 
king  of  Deuelyn,  entred  North  Wales." 

A.D.  1073. — "  Grufifydd  ap  Conan  came  from  Ireland  with  a  great 
army  of  Irish." 

A.D.  1087. — "  Rees  ap  Tewdor  not  being  able  to  meete  with  them, 
fled  to  Ireland,  where  he  purchased  himself  great  freends,  and  got  an 
armie  of  Irishmen  and  Scots — and  so  landed  in  Southwales — and  at 
Llechryd  they  gave  him  battell." 

A.D.  1142. — "  Cadwalader  fled  to  Ireland  and  had  hired  Octer  and 

38  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

much  strengthened  by  the  geographical  distribution,  the 
several  positions,  and,  in  some  cases,  by  the  particular 
meanings  of  these  local  names.  As  regards  their  distri- 
bution, we  have  four  in  Anglesey,  four  in  Caernarvon- 
shire, four  in  Merioneth,  one  in  Montgomeryshire,  one 
in  Radnorshire,  six  in  Cardiganshire,  three  in  Pembroke- 
shire, one  in  Glamorganshire,  and  one  in  Monmouthshire. 
Thus,  out  of  the  five-and-twenty  instances,  twenty  fall 
within  the  limits  which  we  have  just  assigned  to  the 
Gaelic  territory.  Of  the  remaining  five,  one  is  at  no 
great  distance  from  the  Irish  colony  in  Brecknockshire, 
one  is  actually  within  the  territory  of  Rheged,  and 
the  Pembrokeshire  instances  may  be  accounted  for  by 
their  proximity  to  the  territory  of  Ceredigion,'*  unless 
they  are  rather  due  to  the  settlement  on  the  coast  of 
Dyfed,  whose  existence  is  implied  in  the  account  of 
Rhyddmarch,  and  in  other  passages  to  which  we  have 
alluded.  Again,  as  regards  the  several  positions  of  these 
localities,  we  shall  find  that  they  are  placed,  witli  very 
few  exceptions,  just  where  a  vanquished  and  declining 
race  would  make  their  final  efforts  for  independence. 
The  Anglesey  instances  are  among  the  low  grounds, 
intersected,  and  partially  isolated,  by  creeks  and  quick- 
sands, which  characterise  the  western  extremity  of  that 
county.  In  Caernarvonshire,  two  are  at  the  utmost 
point  of  the  wild  promontory  of  Lleyn,  to  which  we  can 
well  imagine  the  Gwyddelod  to  have  been  beaten  back, 

the  Sonne  of  Turkel  and  the  sonne  of  Chenilf,  with  a  great  number  of 
Irishmen  and  Scots  for  2000  markes  to  his  succom-,  and  landed  at 
Abermenay  in  Carnaruonshire." 

*  One  of  them,  in  fact,  was  within  it.    See  above,  p.  34,  Note. 

GAEL    IN    GWYNEDD.  39 

step  by  step  :  a  third  is  at  the  entrance  of  the  terrific 
pass  of  LUmberis,  In  Merionethshire,  we  find  two 
at  the  foot  of  the  great  mountain  chain  whicli  extends 
from  Traetli-Bychan  to  the  Mawddach,  protected  on  the 
north  by  tlie  former  estuary,  and  on  tlie  west  by  marshes 
and  the  sea ;  another  is  among  marshes,  at  the  mouth 
of  a  valley  leading  to  Cader  Idris.  The  Montgomery- 
shire instance,  and  two  in  Cardiganshire,  are  on  the 
skirts  of  the  Plinlimon  group.  The  instance  in  Rad- 
norshire, and  two  of  those  in  Cardiganshire,  stand  at 
the  entrances  of  gorges  leading  into  that  savage  region 
of  mountain  and  moorland,  then  and  long  afterwards 
clothed  with  impenetrable  forests,^  which  lies  between 
the  Wye,  the  Tywy  and  the  Teifi,  and  comprises  por- 
tions of  Cardiganshire,  Montgomeryshire,  Radnorshire, 
Brecknockshire,  and  Caermarthenshire.  The  remaining 
cases  in  Cardiganshire,  and  one  in  Pembrokeshire,  are 
close  upon  the  western  coast.  Twll  y  Gwyddel,  in 
Glamorganshire,  lies  in  a  mountain  pass  on  the  borders 
of  the  Gaelic  district  of  Rheged,  and  the  instance 
which  occurs  near  Abergavenny,  is  not  far  from  the 
mouth  of  that  wonderful  valley  which  opens  into 
Brecknockshire  between  the  Sugarloaf  and  Blorenge. 
The  names  of  three  are  highly  significant.  Cytiau  'r 
Gwyddelod,  near  Holyhead,  I  have  already  had  occasion 
to  notice.  The  two  localities  on  the  shore  of  Traeth 
Bychan  bear  the  names  of  Muriau  'r  Gwyddel,  and 
Muriau  'r  Gwyddelod,  respectively.  The  name  signi- 
fies "the  Gwyddelians'  walls,"  and  one  of  them  at  least 
contains  the  remains  of  ancient  fortifications.     This  is 

5  Leland. 

40  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

especially  important,  because  such  fortresses  are  less 
likely  to  have  been  raised  by  temporary  invaders  during 
a  mere  foray,  than  by  the  actual  possessors  of  the  country 
as  a  means  of  defence  against  aggressors.  They  seem 
therefore  to  imply  that  the  Gael  were,  for  some  time  at 
least,  in  possession  of  the  district  in  which  they  are  found. 
In  general  I  may  remark  that  the  localities  we  are  con- 
sidering are  to  be  found  principally  in  the  western 
portion  of  the  region  which  we  have  assigned  to  the 
Gaelic  occupants,  which  we  should  be  inclined  to  expect, 
on  the  supposition  that  they  derived  their  appellations 
from  having  been  the  scene  of  final  conflicts  with  the 


It  will  now  be  necessary  to  criticise  more  minutely 
the  legend  of  Cunedda,  which  has  been  already  cited  for 
another  purpose.  It  appears  in  various  forms  in  Welsh 
mythological  history,  and  is  so  frequently  repeated,  that 
it  is  impossible  to  overlook  its  importance.  According 
to  one  account,  Cunedda  and  his  eight  sons  came  in  per- 
son to  effect  the  deliverance  of  Wales ;  according  to 
others,  he  sent  his  sons  ;  most  records  agree  in  attributing 
the  victory  to  the  family  of  Cunedda,  and  not  to  that 
prince  himself.  All  assert  that  he  was  a  northern  prince, 
and  some  set  up  for  him  a  hereditary  claim  to  Gwynedd, 
transferring  to  that  early  period  the  ideas  and  practices 
of  a  later  age.  A  few  ascribe  to  him  the  deliverance  of 
Gower  and  the  adjoining  districts  ;  but  the  majority  of 
records  make  Urieii  the  conqueror  and  first  prince  of 

GAEL    IN     GWYNEDD.  41 

Rliegod,  and  limit  the  victories  of  the  Cuneddifin  race  to 
North  Wales,  Cardiganshire,  and  part  of  Radnorshire. 
One  document,  quoted  b}^  William  of  Malmesbury,  goes 
so  far  as  to  attribute  to  the  Cuneddian  race  the  conquest 
of  Gwynedd,  Dyfed,  Gower,  and  even  of  Somersetshire.^ 
The  most  explicit  account  is  contained  in  the  genealogy 
already  quoted.  But  here  we  are  met  by  a  very  curious 
fact.  Of  the  twelve  sons  of  Cunedda  there  enumerated, 
it  is  quite  obvious  that  two  at  least  are  fictitious  names. 
One  is  that  of  Clwyd,  the  name  of  a  river,  very  probably 
imported  from  the  north  ;  the  other  is  that  of  Oswal, 
evidently  a  Teutonic  name,  and  apparently  invented  to 
account  for  a  local  appellation,  which  is  known  to  have 
had  a  totally  different  origin.  This  is  enough  to  cast 
doubt  on  the  historical  existence  of  the  other  brethren. 

6  The  passage  referred  to  is  as  follows : — "  Legitnr  in  antiquis 
Britonum  gestis,  quod  a  Boreali  Britanniae  parte  venerunt  in  occi- 
dentera  duodecim  fratres,  et  tenuerunt  plurimas  Regiones,  Venedociam, 
Demetiam,  Buthir,  (^query,  Guliir  ?)  Kedweli,  quas  proavus  eorum 
Cuneda  tenuerat :  nomina  eorum  fratrum  inferius  annotantur  Ludnertb, 
Morgen,  Catgur,  Catlimor,  Merguid,  Morvined,  Morehel,  Morcant, 
Boten,  Morgen,  Mortineil,  Glasteing.  Hie  est  ilia  Glasteing,  qui 
per  mediterraneos  anglos,  secus  villam  quas  dicitur  Escebtiorne, 
scrofam  suam  usque  ad  Wellis,  et  a  Wellis  per  inviam  et  aquosam 
viam,  quae  Sugewege,  id  est,  Scrofce  via,  dicitur,  sequens  porcellos 
suos,  juxta  ecclesiam  de  qua  nobis  sermo  est,  lactentem  sub  malo 
invenit,  unde  usque  ad  nos  emanavit,  quod  mala  mali  illius  Ealdcyr- 
cene><  epple,  id  est,  veteris  Ecclesiae  poma  vocantur  :  sus  quoque 
ealdecyre  suge  idcirco  nominabatur  quae  cum  ceterae  sues  quatuor  pedes 
habeant,  mirum  dictu,  ista  habuit  octo.  Hie  igitur  Glasteing,  post- 
quam  insulam  illam  ingi'essus,  cam  multimodis  bonis  vidit  affluentem, 
cum  omni  familia  sua  in  ea  venit  habitarc,  cursumque  vitac  suae  ibidem 
peregit.  Ex  ejus  progenie  et  familia  ei  succedente  locus  ille  primitus 
dicitur  populatus,  haec  de  antiquis  Britonum  libris  sunt." — Will. 
Malmsh.  de  Antiq.  Glaston.  Eccl.;  Gale  ScrijJtores,  xx.,  vol.  i., 
p.  295. 


42  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

And  it  is  to  be  observed  that  all  the  existing  names 
are  connected  with  the  designations  of  their  respective 
principalities,  a  circumstance  which  gives  them  a  some- 
what artificial  aspect/  The  names  of  Tibion,  and  his 
son  Meirion,  are  in  a  plural  form,  while  those  of  Cere- 
digion, Edeyrnion  and  Arwystli  seem  to  stand  to  those 
of  their  eponymous  heroes  in  the  relation  of  plurals  to 
their  sin^ulars.^  This  is  sufficient  at  least  to  raise  a 
suspicion  that  we  have  here  the  names  not  of  individuals, 
but  of  nations,  of  various  petty  tribes  of  common  origin, 
which  moved  down  gradually  from  North  Britain,  and 
expelled  the  Gael  from  their  seats  in  Gwynedd.  The 
common  legend  represents  the  sons  of  Canedda  as 
putting  themselves  at  the  head  of  volunteers  from  Dyfed, 
Gower,  and  Gwent.  Now  it  is  obvious  that  the  popu- 
lation of  North  Wales  is  of  distinct  origin  from  those  to 
whom  the  legend  traces  them.  A  Triad,  which  bears 
strong  marks  of  historical  truth,  mentions  tlie  three 
primary  tribes  of  the  nation  of  the  Cymry,  viz.,  the 
Gwentians,  or  the  men  of  Essyllwg ;  the  Gwyndydiaid, 
or  the  men  of  Gwynedd  and  Powys  ;  and  the  tribe  of 
Pendaran  Dyfed,  comprehending  the  men  of  Dyfed,  of 
Gwyr,  and  Ceredigion.  "  And  to  each  of  them,"  the 
Triad  proceeds  to  say,  "  belongs  a  peculiar  dialect  of  the 

7  The  account  preserved  in  Lhoyd's  History  omits  the  name  of 
Clwyd  and  Oswal,  substituting  however  for  the  latter  that  of  Ussa. 

8  This  relation  of  terms  appears  not  unfrequently  in  the  Welsh 
genealogies.  Sometimes  the  father  appears  in  the  plural  form,  and 
the  son  in  the  singular.  Thus  we  have  Gair  the  son  of  Geirion, 
lord  of  Geirionydd,  March  the  son  of  Meirchion,  &c.  The  fact  is 
noticed  by  Professor  Rees,  in  the  case  of  Ceredig ;  but  he  gives  it  a 
somewhat  different  interpretation. — Welsh  Saints,  pp.  109,  110. 



Welsh."  ^  There  can  be  little  doubt  that  the  author  of 
the  Triad  is  describing  accurately  the  phenomena  of  his 
own  time,  and  in  the  main  they  correspond  with  those  of 
our  own.  It  is  much  to  be  regretted  that  the  dialectic 
varieties  in  various  parts  of  Wales  have  not  been  so 
minutely  ascertained  and  registered  as  has  been  the  case 
in  Eno-land.  Still  the  several  varieties  of  the  Welsh 
language  may,  I  believe,  be  classed  under  three  principal 
dialects  of  North  Welsh,  South  Welsh,  and  the  language 
of  Gwent  and  Morganw^g.  The  exact  limits  of  South 
Wales  and  Essyllwg  are  rather  difficult  to  ascertain  ;  the 
district  of  Gower,  which  is  included  by  the  Triad  in  the 
former,  and  which  afterwards  became  a  sort  of  debateable 
land  between  the  contending  principalities,  has  since  been 
to  a  certain  extent  AngHcised,  so  that  it  is  difficult  to 
verify  the  assertion  before  us.  Both  however  are  so 
distinct  from  Gwynedd,  that  it  is  difficult  to  believe  the 
people  of  North  Wales  to  be  a  colony  from  Gwent  and 
Dyfed,  upon  the  supposition,  at  all  events,  that  a  portion 
of  the  former  was  depopulated  by  the  Gael.^ 

It  is  worthy  of  notice  that  the  region  of  Ceredigion, 
one  of  those  which  were  won  from  the  Gael  by  the 
sons  of  Cunedda,  is  included  by  the  Triad  within  the 
territory  of  the  tribe  of  Dyfed.  At  present,  unless  I  am 
mistaken,  the  inhabitants  of  the  northern  portion  of  that 
county  speak  a  dialect  nearly  akin  to  that  of  the  popula- 
tion of  Merioneth,  while  the  language  in  the  south  of  the 
county  is  nearly  identical  with  that  in  use  in  Pembroke- 

9  Myv.  Arch.,  ii.,  p.  61. 

1  This  supposition  is  implied  in  a  Triad  quoted  in  the  lolo  MSS., 
(p.  421;)  and  is  assumed  by  Rowland,  Mona  Antiq.,  p.  37. 

44  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

shire  and  Caermartlienshire.  At  all  events  the  natives 
of  the  extreme  north  and  extreme  south  of  Cardigan- 
shire are  not  always  mutually  intelligible.  There  is 
also  reason  to  believe  that  the  district  of  Ceredigion  ex- 
tended at  one  time  north  of  the  Dyfi,"  so  as  to  take  in  a 
portion  of  Gwynedd  properly  so  called.  In  that  case, 
we  may  well  conceive  that  the  people  who  gave  name 
to  that  country  occupied  the  northern  portion  alone,  but 
finally  extended  their  supremacy  and  their  name  over 
the  neighbouring  Demetians,  at  least  as  far  as  the  Teifi. 
In  confirmation  of  this  view,  it  must  be  recollected 
that  the  centuries  during  which  these  events  are  supposed 
to  have  occurred  constituted  pre-eminently  the  age  of 
migrations.  It  is  very  difficult  for  us  who  live  at  a  time 
when  society  is  fixed,  consolidated,  and  permanent — who 
dwell  under  the  shadow  of  a  civilisation  built  upon  the 
precedents  of  ages — whose  hope  and  ambition  is  circum- 
scribed by  home  and  country — to  realise  a  condition  of 
things  when  the  whole  population  of  the  west  was  in  a 
state  of  flux  and  agitation,  when  entire  nations  quitted 
their  seats  from  time  to  time,  and  entire  realms  received 
new  names  from  the  various  nations  that  had  occupied 
them.  The  difficulty  is  great  to  us  ;  but  it  was  still 
greater  to  our  ancestors  in  the  middle  ages.  They  lived 
at  a  time  when  society  in  some  respects  appeared  even 
more  unchanging  than  at  present,  and  when  men's 
thoughts  and  affections  were  certainly  much  more  limited 
by  place.  They  lived  at  a  time  when  national  migra- 
tions had  ceased,  and  systematic  colonisation  had  not 
yet   begun.      They   lived    at   a   time   when   bold    and 

=  lolo  MSS.,  p.  476. 

GAEL    IN    GWYNEDD.  45 

grasping  adventurers  were  continually  carving  out  for 
themselves  an  inheritance  with  the  sword,  and  numberless 
petty  lordships  were  governed  in  almost  regal  style  by 
men  who  had  neither  title  to  the  land,  nor  relation  to 
its  occupiers.  It  is  not  to  be  wondered  then  that,  in 
their  version  of  the  ancient  legend,  they  converted  the 
mythical  sons  of  Cunedda,  the  eponymous  heroes  of 
various  kindred  and  associated  tribes,  into  the  likeness  of 
the  foreign  adventurers  of  their  own  age,  and  represented 
them  as  placing  themselves  at  the  head  of  subjects  with 
whom  they  had  no  concern,  and  dividing  among  a  single 
family  the  inheritance  of  the  conquered.  Or,  again,  they 
described  the  partition  of  Gwynedd  as  an  act  of  gratitude 
to  the  deliverers — a  piece  of  poetical  justice,  no  doubt, 
but  more  akin  to  poetry  than  history.  I  think  we  may 
fairl}^  regard  the  whole  story  as  the  record  of  an  extensive 
national  migration,  and  I  shall  venture  to  call  it  the 
Cuneddian  migration. 

If  this  be  the  true  view,  if  it  was  really  a  whole  race, 
and  not  a  single  family  alone,  that  left  its  home  under 
some  pressure  external  or  internal,  to  find  new  seats  in 
the  south,  we  may  well  believe  that  the  change  was  very 
gradual.^  We  know  that,  even  in  much  later  times,  the 
territory  of  Gwynedd  stretched  to  the  north-east,  con- 
siderably beyond  its  present  hmits.  It  is  therefore 
probable  that  the  Gwyndydians,  (for  so  we  must  call  the 
new  occupants  of  Gwynedd,  to  which  they  gave  their 

3  I  do  not  mean  that  the  actual  movement  of  the  invaders  was 
gradual,  a  view  which  would  be  contrary  to  the  history  of  migrations; 
but  that  the  successive  movements  of  tribes  from  the  north  may  have 
extended  over  an  indefinite  period. 

46  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

name,)  moving  down  from  their  northern  habitations, 
pressed  first  upon  the  north-eastern  frontier  of  the  Gael, 
and  gradually  established  themselves  in  the  country  of 
Powys.  The  districts  of  Arwystli,  Edeyrnion,  Maeli- 
enydd  and  Ceredigion,  as  being  most  accessible,  would 
next  fall  into  their  hands,  and  the  Gael  would  remain 
entrenched  behind  the  strong  natural  barriers  which 
defend  Mon,  Arfon  and  Meirion.  And  hence  in  many 
versions  of  the  legend  we  have  their  power  limited  to 
those  counties.  It  is  probable  that  a  considerable  length 
of  time  would  be  necessary  for  these  events  to  take  place 
in  ;  and  we  have  seen  that  it  is  in  our  power  to  place  their 
commencement  at  a  very  early  period. 

I  must  turn  aside  for  a  moment  to  notice  an  apparent 
difficulty  in  the  accounts  of  this  migration.  The  nature 
of  the  country,  as  well  as  the  universal  tradition,  would 
lead  us  to  conclude  that  Mon,  Arfon  and  Meirion  were 
the  last  conquered  of  all  the  Gaelic  possessions.  We 
must  therefore  conclude  that  the  Cymry  pressed  on  the 
Gael  from  the  east.  The  isle  of  Man,  which  appears  to 
have  formed  part  of  the  Gaelic  principahty  of  North 
Wales,  would  be  their  nearest  place  of  refuge ;  and  we 
are  told  that  the  Gwyddelians  were  driven  to  that  place 
after  the  conquest  of  Mona.  On  the  other  hand,  we 
are  elsewhere  informed  that  Tibion,  the  father  of  Meirion, 
died  in  the  isle  of  Man,  or  Manaw,  apparently  before 
the  conquest  of  Gwynedd  by  his  brethren.  This  would 
imply  that  the  Cuneddian  race  took  a  different  course 
from  that  which  has  been  assigned  to  them,  and  invaded 
Wales  from  the  sea,  proceeding  from  North  Britain  by 
the  way  of  the  isle  of  Man — a  view  inconsistent  at  once 

GAEL    IN    CJWYNEDD.  47 

with  probability,  and  with  the  traditions  already  cited. 
The  expression  used  by  Nenniiis  probably  gives  us  the 
ancient  legend,  and  thus  serves  to  explain  this  tradition. 
He  tells  us  that  Cunedda  and  his  eight  sons  came  to 
Wales  from  the  northern  parts,  from  the  country  called 
Manau  Guotodin.  Now  Nennius  elsewhere  speaks  of 
Man  as  Eubonia,  or  Manau  simply,*  and  would  scarcely 
have  described  it  as  "  the  parts  of  the  north,  to  wit, 
the  country  called  Manau  Guotodin."^  It  is  therefore 
probable  that  the  word  Manaw  was  applied  to  several 
districts,  and  that  the  word  Guotodin,  possibly  a  national 
appellation,  was  added  as  a  mark  of  distinction.  And  it 
is  difficult  to  avoid  the  conclusion  that  it  was  the  country 
of  the  Gododin,  or  Ottadini,  the  British  inhabitants  of 
the  eastern  coast,  north  of  the  Brigantes,  from  whom, 
according  to  Mr.  Stephens,*^  Aneurin's  celebrated  poem 
derives  its  name,  and  who  may  thence  be  concluded  to 
be  a  Cymraic  tribe,  akin  to  the  conquerors  of  Gwynedd. 


We  now  come  to  a  very  obscure  question,  and  one  to 
which  in  our  present  state  of  knowledge  on  the  subject 
we  shall  hardly  be  able  to  give  a  satisfactory  answer — 
were  the  Gael  of  North  Wales  invaders  after  all  ?  I  do 
not  mean  to  ask  whether  they  were  invaders  absolutely, 
but  whether  they  had  dispossessed  the  Cymry  ?  To 
answer  the  question  in  the  negative  would^not  prove 
them  to  be  aborigines,  it  would  only  prove  them  to  be 

4  §  8.  5  ^  62.     See  above,  p.  15,  Note. 

6  Literature  of  the  Kymry,  p.  11. 

48  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

the  original  inhabitants  as  compared  with  the  present 
possessors  of  the  country.  The  question  whether  the 
Celts  had  predecessors  in  these  islands  is  a  highly  diffi- 
cult one ;  but  the  solution  is  possibly  not  beyond  the 
power  of  archeeological  science.  But  it  is  no  part  of 
the  present  question.  The  present  question  is — did  the 
Gael  temporarily  dispossess  the  Cymry ;  or  did  the 
Cymry,  for  the  first  and  last  time,  dispossess  the  Gael 
of  a  country  which  they  themselves  had  never  before 
inhabited  ? 

To  adopt  the  latter  alternative  almost  necessarily  in- 
volves the  affirmation  of  another  contested  position,  I 
mean,  that  the  Gael  preceded  the  Cymry  in  the  pos- 
session of  the  whole  of  Britain,  and  were  afterwards 
driven  by  them  into  the  highlands  of  Scotland,  and  the 
neighbouring  islands  of  Ireland,  Man,  and  the  Hebrides. 
I  will  not  open  this  question  now,  (as  it  is  far  too  exten- 
sive to  be  treated  of  here,)  but  assume  it  on  the  authority 
of  the  best  historians  and  ethnologists.'  Still  it  will  not 
be  out  of  place  to  state  briefly  some  of  the  leading 
arguments  on  either  side.  On  the  one  side  we  have  the 
great  argument  derived  from  geographical  position.  The 
Gael  are  situated  further  from  the  great  cradle  of  the 
human  race,  and  from  the  continent  of  Europe.  They 
would  therefore  appear  to  have  preceded  the  Cymry  in 
their  advance  westwards,  and  if  so,  they  would  doubtless 
seize  first  upon  the  nearer  and  more  fertile  districts,  after- 

^  Niebulir,  History  of  Rome,  Transl.,  vol.  ii.,  p.  522,  sq.  Thierry, 
History  of  the  Norman  Conquest,  b.  i.  E.  Lhuyd.  Dr.  Prichard 
sufjgests  this  view,  but  does  not  positively  adopt  it. — Physical  History 
of.  Mankind,  vol.  iii,,  c.  3.,  §  12. 



wards  occupied  by  the  other  great  branch  of  the  Celtic 
fiimily.  Add  to  thi^;,  that  there  appears  greater  proof  of 
connexion  between  the  Welsh  and  the  continental  Celts, 
than  between  the  latter  and  the  Irish."  The  Welsh  have 
an  obscure  tradition  of  an  earlier  race,  whom  they  drove 
out  or  made  slaves  of.^  The  earliest  known  name  of 
Britain,  Albion,  seems  connected  with  Alban,  a  name 
now  confined  to  the  highlands  of  Scotland/  Finally, 
Lhuyd  discovered  in  Wales  numerous  local  names,  which 
can  only  be  interpreted  by  reference  to  the  Gaelic  idiom. - 
On  the  other  hand,  we  have  an  absence  of  traditional 
evidence  in  favour  of  this  view  among  the  Welsh  and 
Irish  alike,  except  the  vague  legend  alluded  to  above ; 
and  we  have  on  the  part  of  the  former  nation  a  claim  to 
be  the  aborigines  of  the  country,  whatever  the  value 
of  that  claim  may  be. 

Let  us  assume  then  that  the  Gael  were  the  first  Celtic 
inhabitants  of  Britain,  whether  aboriginal  or  otherwise ; 
and  that,  at  various  periods  anterior  to  the  Roman 
invasion,  the  Cymry  dispossessed  and  drove  them  for- 
ward, and  were  themselves  invaded  and  circumscribed  by 
foreign  tribes,  as  the  Belgse  and  Coritani.  It  is  obvious 
that  the  earlier  possessors  would  retire  into  the  more 
distant,  the  least  penetrable,  and  the  least  enviable  dis- 
tricts, as  for  example  those  in  which  they  still  exist, 
Ireland,  Man,  the  Highlands  and  Hebrides.     But  it  is 

8  Prichard,  Physical  History  of  Mankind,  vol.  iii.,  c.  3,  §  11. 

9  Thierry,  b.  i. 

1  Aristot.  de  Mundo,  c.  3.     The  book,  however,  is  pronounced  to 
he  spurious. 

2  Welsh  preface  to  the  Archseologia  Britannica. 


50  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

also  evident  that  they  would  hold  out,  for  some  time  at 
least,  in  Wales,  Cumberland  and  Cornwall,  just  as  the 
Cymry  did  centuries  afterwards.  The  former  of  these 
districts,  as  the  most  extensive  and  impregnable,  would 
probably  be  their  last  possession  in  South  Britain.  And, 
surely,  what  the  mountain  ranges  of  Gwynedd  and 
Ceredigion  became  in  later  ages  to  the  Cymry,  they 
were  then  to  the  Gael ;  what  they  became  in  later  ages 
to  the  Teutons,  they  were  then  to  the  Cymry.  To  the 
former  they  were  a  secure  bulwark,  to  the  latter  an 
impassable  barrier,  perhaps  for  centuries.  Of  course  we 
have  no  data  for  fixing  the  age  in  which  this  struggle 
commenced,  and  it  is  equally  impossible  to  say  how  long 
it  would  continue.  As  to  the  former  question,  the  name 
given  to  Britain  by  the  author  of  the  treatise,  "  De 
Mundo,"  would  lead  us  to  conclude  that  the  whole,  or 
the  greater  part  of  it,  was  in  the  possession  of  the 
Albanich,^  until  within  a  very  few  centuries  of  our  era.* 
The  answer  to  the  latter  question  would  depend  on  the 
resistance  of  the  old  inhabitants,  the  population  of  the 
aggressors,  and  the  extent  to  which  they  were  pressed 
upon  by  new  invaders.  We  know  that  the  Cymry  had 
been  dispossessed  of  the  south-eastern  portions  of  the 
island  shortly  before  the  invasion  of  Caesar;^  we  know 
also  that  at  that  period  the  population  of  South  Britain 
was  enormous,*^  and  would  therefore  require  an  outlet  to 

3  The  Scottish  Highlanders.  '^  Aristot.  de  Mundo,  c.  3. 

5  The  BelgEe  had  a  tradition  of  their  arrival,  and  tradition  in  those 
ages  was  probably  short-lived ;  the  invasion  of  the  Coritani,  too,  is 
placed  in  the  age  immediately  preceding  the  Roman  invasion. 

6  "  Hominum  est  infinita  multitudo."— (7«s.  Bell.  Gall,  b.  v., 
c.  12. 

GAEL    IN    GWYNEDD.  51 

the  north  or  west.  In  Ireland,  so  far  as  we  know,  the 
Cymry  never  settled;'^  and,  from  what  we  know  of  the 
Caledonians  at  a  somewhat  later  period,  it  is  probable 
that  their  northern  limit  was  already  fixed.  They  would 
therefore  be  compelled  to  press  upon,  and  gradually  to 
supplant,  the  more  isolated  tribes  of  the  Gael  in  North 
Wales;  and  it  is  quite  conceivable  that  this  process  of 
extermination  continued  until  the  victory  of  Caswallawn 
Law  Hir,  in  the  fifth  century.  We  should  here  take 
notice  of  a  fact  which,  to  a  certain  extent,  falls  in  with 
our  argument.  A  people  called  Cangani''  are  placed  by 
Ptolemy  and  Richard  in  the  west  of  Ireland  ;  and  the 
latter  writer  tells  us  that  a  portion  of  the  Cangi  and 
Brigantes  emigrated  to  Ireland  in  the  first  century  of  our 

This  view  of  the  history  of  North  Wales  seems,  to  say 
the  least,  more  probable  than  that  a  colony  of  Irish  Scots 
would  seize  upon  and  occupy  the  least  accessible  and 
least  eligible  portion  of  South  Britain,  neglecting  the 
more  inviting  districts  in  the  immediate  neighbourhood, 
which  were  under  the  dominion,  not  of  their  subsequently 
successful  opponents  from  Cumbria  and  Strathclyde,  but 
of  Silurians  and  Demetians,  who,  as  we  are  told,  were 

7  Prichard,  Physical  History,  vol.  iii.,  c.  3,  §  12,  p.  148. 

^  rayyctj'ot. — Ptoleiny. 

9  "  Circa  haec  tempora,  relicta  Britannia,  Cangi  et  Brigantes  in 
Hiberniam  commigrarunt,  sedesque  ibi  posuerunt."  One  cannot  lielp 
suspecting  a  connexion  between  these  Brigantes  and  Brychan  Bry- 
cheinioc,  a  patriarch  of  Gaelic  origin. — Ric.  Ciren.,  de  Situ  JJrit.,  ii., 
c.  1,  §  17.  Compare  however  i,,  c.  8,  §  9,  where  Richard  appears  to 
imply  that  the  language  of  tliese  immigrants  referred  them  to  the 
Cymraic  branch.  One  may  doubt  his  having  sufficient  grounds  for 
the  assertion. 

52  VESTIGES     OF    THE 

unable  to  face  them  alone.  If  the  northern  Picts  and 
Scots  never  effected  a  settlement  in  England,  confining 
their  invasions  to  jDredatory  incursions,  is  it  likely  that 
their  brethren  from  the  other  side  of  the  channel  would 
be  either  willing  or  able  to  seize  and  retain  for  a  century 
and  a  quarter,  not  the  rich  province  of  Loegria,  tenanted 
by  half- Romanized  Britons,  but  the  wilds  of  Arfon,  the 
heritage  of  the  free  mountaineers  of  Gwynedd  ?  It  is 
true  that  the  Irish  Scots  were  a  hardy  and  adventurous 
people,  and  were  already,  or  soon  afterwards,  making 
piratical  excursions,  and  establishing  foreign  colonies. 
It  is  probable  that  they  did  so  in  various  parts  of  South 
Wales  in  the  fifth  and  sixth  centuries ;  it  is  certain  that 
they  did  so  in  Scotland  in  the  sixth.  But  it  is  very 
probable  that  the  Gaelic  dominion  in  North  Wales,  never 
previously  extinguished,  was  kept  up  by  occasional  sup- 
plies from  Ireland  ;  and  not  altogether  impossible  that 
the  Dalriadic  colony  in  the  western  Highlands  was  in 
some  measure  occasioned  by  the  loss  in  North  Wales 
both  of  actual  territory  and  of  an  outlet  for  superfluous 

There  is  one  further  diflSculty  in  accepting  this  view, 

1  It  is  asserted  by  Professor  Rees,  on  the  authority  of  Mr.  Moore, 
(History  of  Ireland,  c.  7,)  that  "  an  invasion  of  Britain  on  an  extensive 
and  formidable  scale  took  place  towards  the  close  of  the  fourth  cen- 
tury, under  the  auspices  of  a  king  of  Ireland,  called  Nial  of  the  Nine 
Hostages." — Welsh  Saints,  p.  109,  note.  This  Nial  occurs  in  the 
Four  Masters,  and  the  Annals  of  Innisfail,  as  reigning  from  379  to 
405.  The  latter  chronicle  certainly  informs  us  that  a  large  number 
of  captives,  and  among  them  St.  Patrick,  were  brought  into  Ireland 
from  Britain  in  388.  This  is,  however,  much  too  late  for  the  com- 
mencement of  the  Gaelic  kingdom  in  North  Wales. — O' Conor, 
Rerum  Ilihh.  Scrij}t. 

GAEL    IN    GWYNEDD.  53 

namely,  thnt  nil  the  traditions  of  tlic  subject  represent 
the  CJwyddyl  as  invaders ;  and  some  represent  the  in- 
vasion as  having-  occurred  at  a  comparatively  short 
distance  of  time  before  their  expulsion.  To  this  it 
must  be  said,  that  one  tradition  at  least  appears  to 
regard  the  invasion  of  Gwynedd  as  contemporaneous 
with  the  first  arrival  of  the  Gael  in  Britain,  though 
it  evidently  regards  that  event  as  posterior  to  that  of 
the  Cymry  ;  -  that  the  occasional  supplies  which  were 
probably  sent  to  Gwynedd,  and  the  known  piratical 
habits  of  Scots  and  Scandinavians,  may  have  caused  the 
chroniclers  of  a  later  age  to  represent  the  whole  affair  as 
a  mere  foray  of  Irish  and  Lochlynians,  antedating  by 
centuries  the  northern  invasions  of  Britain  ;  and  the  same 
pride  which  prompted  the  Cymry  to  falsify  the  account 
of  their  first  entrance  into  the  island,  would  induce  the 
men  of  Gwynedd  to  regard  themselves  as  aborigines, 
rather  than  as  invaders.  They  are  not  the  only  nation 
that  have  been  content  to  sacrifice  the  glory  of  conquest 
to  that  of  aboriginality.  We  all  know  how  the  Athe- 
nians bound  up  their  hair  with  grasshoppers,  in  token 
that  they  were  children  of  the  soil ;  yet  the  early  institu- 
tions and  traditions  of  that  people  exhibited  no  faint 
marks  of  foreign  conquest  and  military  dominion.^  It  is 
probable  that  our  antiquarian  discoveries  will  one  day 
prove  that  neither  Gael  nor  Cymry  were  the  first  inhabi- 
tants of  these  islands,  will  silence  the  latter  in  their  vain 

"  See  above,  p.  21. 

3  E.  (j.,  in  the  relics  of  a  division  into  castes,  or  sometliing  very 
like  one.  The  tradition  of  the  contest  between  Posidon  and  Athene 
also  seems  to  point  to  somethmg  of  the  kind. 

54  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

boasts  of  aboriginal  possession,  and  thus  destroy  the 
traditional  evidence  against  the  prior  occupation  of  the 
former.'*  If  then  we  assume  that  the  Welsh  were 
prompted  by  vanity  to  claim  a  precedence  to  which 
they  had  no  right,  we  may  believe  that  the  same  vanity 
would  lead  them  to  pervert  the  traditions  concerning  the 
Gwyddelian  occupation  of  North  Wales. 

This  however  is  a  further  question,  and  the  position 
just  advanced  cannot  rise  above  a  conjecture.  But  the 
general  fact  of  the  Gaelic  occupation  of  North  Wales  is 
much  more  than  a  conjecture ;  the  fact  rests  on  indis- 
putable evidence  ;  though  we  are  compelled  to  make  out 
its  extent  and  duration,  as  well  as  its  circumstances,  by 
the  help  of  obscure  and  inconsistent  fragments  of  tra- 
dition. There  is  one  point  however  on  which  I  must 
insist,  and  that  is  the  importance  of  the  fact.  Whether 
the  Gael  were  invaders  or  not,  it  is  clear  that  the  ancient 
civilisation,  if  any  such  existed,  was  broken  up  and  had 
disappeared  before  the  conquest  by  Caswallawn.  The 
Cuneddian  migration  is  the  first  chapter  in  the  history  of 
North  Wales.  To  the  Cuneddian  family  the  kings  and 
nobles  of  North  Wales  traced  up  their  genealogies. 
From  the  age  of  Cunedda  we  are  to  date,  if  not  the 
introduction,  at  least  the  establishment  of  Christianity 
in  that  province.^     Previous  history  we  have  none :  the 

*  Worsaae,  Primeval  Antiquities  of  Denmark,  Tr.,  pp.  127-135. 
A  valuable  paper  on  this  subject  was  read  by  Mr.  D.  Wilson,  before 
the  British  Association,  at  Edinburgh,  in  August,  1850,  entitled,  "  An 
Inquiry  into  the  evidence  of  the  existence  of  Primitive  Races  in  Scot- 
land prior  to  the  Celtse." 

5  lolo  MSS.,  p.  472.  Trioedd  Ynys  Prydain.  Myv.  Arch.,  ii., 
p.  Gl. 

GAEL    IN    GWYNEDD.  ijO 

earliest  Welsh  legends  are  nearly  all  connected  with  South 
Wales,  or  with  North  Britain/'  The  genealogy  which 
claimed  for  Cunedda  the  hereditary  monarchy  of  North 
AVales,  reminds  one  strongly  of  the  supposed  title  of  the 
Peloponnesian  kings  to  the  inheritance  of  Hercules/ 
The  same  spirit  which  converted  the  Dorian  migration 
into  the  return  of  the  Heraclidae,  probably  created  the 
female  succession  which  handed  down  the  right  and  title 
to  the  royalty  of  Gwynedd.  It  is  clear  that,  to  the  in- 
habitants of  the  south,  Gwynedd  was  at  this  time  an 
unknown  land.  Their  imagination  filled  it  with  giants, 
fairies,  monsters,  and  magicians/  The  inhabitants  exer- 
cised strange  arts  :  they  had  cauldrons  of  like  virtue  with 
that  which  renewed  the  youth  of  iEson  :^  a  red  dragon 
and  a  white  were  buried  as  the  palladium  of  their 
metropolis/  Among  their  monarchs  was  a  veritable  cat, 
the  offspring  of  a  wandering  sow.-     Their  chief  philoso- 

6  The  Gael,  it  is  said,  found  "  no  princes"  in  Gwynedd. — loh 
MSS.,  p.  522. 

7  Professor  Rees  has  successfully  destroyed  the  Welsh  genealogies 
of  the  period  prior  to  the  departure  of  the  Romans. — Welsh  Saints, 
§  5.  The  pedigi'ee  of  Cunedda  is  also  open  to  the  remarkable  objection 
that  for  six  generations  the  name  of  the  father  is  derived  from  that 
of  the  son. 

8  Mabinogi  of  Math.     Hanes  Taliesin. 

9  Mabinogi  of  Branwen. 

1  Mabinogi  of  Lludd  and  Llefelys. 

-  lolo  MSS.,  p.  471.  Compare  the  Triad  of  the  "  Three  powerful 
Swineherds,"  Myv.  Arch.,  vol.  ii.,  p.  72.  This  wandering  of  swine 
runs  through  many  of  the  Welsh  legends,  as  for  instance  in  the 
Mabinogion  of  the  Twi'ch  Ti"wyth,  and  Math  the  son  of  Mathonwy. 
The  tradition  of  Arthur's  boar-hunt  still  lingers  in  parts  of  North 
Wales.  We  may  compare  with  these  the  story  already  quoted  from 
WilUam  of  Malmesbury,  above,  p.  41,  note.  Have  we  the  true  key  to 
these  legends,  in   Mr.   Stephens'   suggestion   with  reference   to  the 

56  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

pher  was  of  gigantic  stature,  and  sat  on  a  mountain -peak 
to  watch  the  stars. ^  Their  wizard-monarch,  Gwydion, 
had  the  power  of  effecting  the  strangest  metamorphoses/ 
The  simple  peasant,  dwelling  on  the  shore  of  Dyfed, 
beheld  across  the  sea  those  shadowy  mountain  summits 
pierce  the  air,  guardians  as  it  seemed  of  some  unearthly 
region.  Thence  came  the  mist  and  storm  ;  thence  flashed 
aloft  the  northern  streamers ;  thence  rose  throuo'h  the 
silent  sky  the  starry  path  of  Gwydion. 

In  South  Wales,  meanwhile,  we  find  matters  in  a  much 
more  advanced  state.  The  Silurians,  formerly  the  most 
powerful  tribe  of  Britannia  Secunda,  exercising,  as  it 
appears,  some  sort  of  supremacy  over  their  neighbours,^ 
having  been  of  old  the  opponents  of  Roman  power,  be- 
came at  length  the  inheritors  of  Roman  civilisation. 
The  rest  of  South  Wales  was  divided  into  small  princi- 
palities, the  chief  bearing  the  ancient  name  of  Dyfed, 
which  in  course  of  time  was  quite  independent  of  its 
neighbours  on  the  east.  The  country  was  under  a  regular 
ecclesiastical  establishment,  subject  to  the  see  of  Caerleon. 
As  yet  we  find  no  bishoprics  in  Gwynedd,  and  for  a  long- 
time the  ecclesiastical  establishment  seems  to  have  been 
unsettled,  corresponding  probably  to  the  state  of  the 
country,*'      Ceredigion,   which,   as   we   have   seen,    was 

"  Hoianau,"  that  the  "  pig  typifies  the  Welsh  people?" — LiteraUtre 
of  the  Kymry,  p.  250.  Cf.  Virg.  yEn.,  viii.,  42,  sq.  Niebuhr, 
Hist.  Rom.,  Tr.,  i.,  p.  195. 

3  Idris  Gawr.  4  Mabinogi  of  Math. 

^  Duae  ahae  sub  Sihiribus  gentes  fuere ;  primum  Ordovices  .  .  . 
deinde  Dimeciae." — Bic.  Ciren.,  de  Situ  Brit.,  \.,  c.  6,  §  24. — lolo 
MSS.,  p.  G09. 

^  Cybi,  the  first  person  called  a  bishop  in  Gwynedd,  was  posterior 

GAEL    IN    GWYNEDD.  57 

earlier  conquered  than  most  parts  of  the  Gaehc  kingdom, 
soon  became  a  separate  principality,  and  appears  to  have 
continued  independent  of  Gwynedd  from  that  time  for- 
ward. And  one  by  one  the  possessions  of  the  Gael  were 
wrested  from  them ;  a  new  people  came  in,  introducing 
a  name  possibly  connected  with  that  of  their  mythical 
leader/  The  Ordovices  passed  away,  and  with  them  the 
Cangani ;  the  latter,  it  may  be,  to  find  a  refuge  with 
their  brethren  of  the  same  name  in  Ireland. 


It  only  remains  to  trace  as  concisely  as  possible  the 
results  of  this  event  in  the  subsequent  history  of  Wales — 
results  which  will  combine  to  form  at  once  an  additional 
proof  of  the  fact,  and  an  illustration  of  its  importance. 
The  first  and  most  prominent  consequence  was  the  esta- 
blishment of  a  new  power  in  Gwynedd,  a  power  destined 
to  draw  to  itself  the  sovereignty  of  the  Cymry,  to  be 
their  last  stay  and  defence,  and  in  some  measure,  per- 
haps, the  cause  of  their  ultimate  downfall. 

We  have  seen  that  the  principal  kingdom  in  South 

to  the  conquest  by  Caswallawn. —  JVelsh  Saints,  p.  266.  But  we 
meet  with  nothing  Uke  fixed  sees  before  the  time  of  Maelgwyn 

7  I  shall  probably  be  censiu-ed  by  AYelsh  scholars,  for  venturing 
to  connect  the  name  of  Gwynedd  with  that  of  Cunedda,  and  by  Welsh 
antiquaries,  for  throwing  doubts  upon  the  historical  existence  of  that 
personage.  I  do  not  know  what  arguments  may  be  urged  in  favour 
of  his  existence.  The  Marwnad  Cunedda,  ascribed  to  Taliesin,  has 
recently  been  pronounced,  by  a  competent  authority,  to  be  of  doubtful 
origin,  and  even  if  genuine,  does  not  amount  to  contemporary  evi- 
dence.— Stephens'  Literature  of  the  Kymry^  p.  282. 

58  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

Wales  was  that  of  Essyllwg,  and  that  the  remainder  of 
that  country  was  divided  into  several  small  territories. 
Several  of  these  appear  to  have  been  grouped  into  larger 
principalities,  probably  varying  with  the  relative  impor- 
tance of  their  constituent  elements.  The  country  of 
Dyfed  seems  to  have  preserved  its  appellation  through- 
out. Rheged,  lying  between  Essyllwg  and  the  region 
last  mentioned,  and  for  a  time  independent,  fell  subse- 
quently under  the  power  of  each  of  its  neighbours  at 
various  periods.  It  may  be  doubted  however  whether 
its  independence  was  at  any  time  more  than  partial. 
But  it  is  evident  that  there  existed  at  an  early  period  an 
independent  power  on  the  north  of  Dyfed.  We  are  often 
able  to  determine  the  boundaries  of  ancient  kingdoms, 
by  those  of  dioceses  still  existing.  Thus  the  kingdom  of 
Siluria,  or  Essyllwg,  is  represented  by  the  diocese  of 
Llandaff;  that  of  Dyfed,  or  Demetia,  by  St.  David's. 
It  is  well  known  that  a  third  diocese  existed  to  the 
north  of  the  latter,  I  mean  that  of  Llanbadarn-fawr, 
founded  in  the  sixth  century  by  Paternus,  an  Armori- 
can  refugee.'*  We  are  informed  in  the  Life  of  Pater- 
nus, published  originally  by  Capgrave,  that  David,^ 
Teilo  and  Paternus,  undertook  a  journey  to  Jerusalem 
together,  to  receive  consecration  from  the  patriarch ;  and 
that,  on  their  return,  they  divided  the  spiritual  govern- 
ment of  Wales  between  them.^     They  are  also  classed 

8  Usher,  Britt.  Eccll.  Antt.,  c.  xiv. 

9  Nova  Legenda  Angliae,  fol.  cclix.  The  same  story  occurs  in  the 
Life  of  St.  David,  by  Rhyddmarch,  and  that  of  St.  Teilo,  by  Geoffrey 
of  Llandaff. — Wliart.  Aug.  Sac,  ii.,  pp.  637,  663,  sq. 

1  "  Regressi  enim  ad  patriam  in  tres  episcopatus  Britanniam  di vise- 
runt." — Capgrave,  fol.  cclix. 

GAEL    IN    GWYNEDD.  59 

together  by  a  Triad,  under  the  title  of  "  Blessed  Visitors."^ 
It  is  clear  from  this  that  the  churches  founded  by  them 
were  regarded  as  of  co-ordinate  rank,  and  as  two  of  them 
represent  ancient  secular  divisions,  it  is  probable  that  a 
similar  division  coincided  with  the  diocese  of  Llanbadarn. 
The  limits  of  that  diocese  may  be  determined  with 
some  degree  of  accuracy,  at  all  events  as  regards  its 
southern  frontier.  If  we  start  from  the  sea-coast  about 
fourteen  miles  south  of  Aberystwyth,  we  shall  find  two 
lines  of  churches  running  nearly  straight  and  parallel  to 
each  other,  and  extending  from  Cardigan  Bay,  through 
the  counties  of  Cardigan,  Brecknock  and  Radnor,  to  the 
borders  of  Herefordshire.  The  churches  composing  the 
northern  line,  on  the  side  of  Llanbadarn- fa wr,  are  dedi- 
cated to  St.  Paternus,  while  those  on  the  south  are  under 
the  invocation  of  St.  David.  This  probably  marks  the 
ancient  boundary  between  the  dioceses  of  St.  David's 
and  Llanbadarn.  The  latter  must  therefore  have  occu- 
pied the  northern  part  of  Cardiganshire,  the  mountainous 
district  to  the  east  of  it,  and  a  portion  of  the  country 
between  the  Wye  and  Severn.  To  the  north  and  east  it 
would  be  conterminous  with  the  present  diocese  of  St. 
David's.^  It  is  worthy  of  notice  that  the  line  of  churches 
which  I  have  just  mentioned,  is  marked  throughout  the 
western  portion  of  its  extent  by  a  chain  of  fortresses, 
occupying  in  many  instances  both  sides  of  the  valleys 
which  would  naturally  divide  the  districts;'*  while  we 
find  a  little  to  the  north  of  it  the  "  Cwys  yr  Ychain 

2  Myv.  Arch.,  vol.  ii.,  p.  61. 

3  See  Rees'  Welsh  Saints,  p.  198. 

*  One  of  them  bears  the  name  of  Clarvdd  Ddewi. 

60  VESTIGES     OF    THE 

Bannog,"  a  dyke  extending  east  and  west  for  some 
miles,  which  we  may  conceive  to  have  formed  part  of  a 
line,  if  not  of  defence,  at  least  of  demarcation.  The 
division  moreover  coincides  in  the  main  with  the  distri- 
bution of  dialects  which  I  have  already  noticed.^  These 
facts  all  tend  to  confirm  the  notion  of  its  making  a  civil 
or  national,  and  not  merely  an  ecclesiastical,  separation. 

Upon  this  supposition  the  question  remains  unsettled, 
what  name  we  are  to  give  to  this  principality.  The  Life 
of  Paternus  already  quoted  informs  us  that  he  founded 
churches  and  monasteries  throughout  the  whole  of  Cere- 
digion ;  ^  and  the  Life  preserved  in  the  Cotton  Library 
further  speaks  of  him  as  ruler  and  pastor  of  the  church 
of  Ceredigion.^  It  would  appear  from  these  statements 
that  the  principality  of  Ceredigion  was  originally  co- 
extensive with  the  diocese  of  Paternus,  especially  as 
there  are  no  signs  of  his  having  founded  churches  in  the 
south  of  Cardiganshire.  And  this  falls  in  with  the  view 
already  suggested,  that  the  north  of  Cardiganshire  was 
the  earliest  seat  in  Wales  of  the  family  of  Ceredig,  and 
that  they  subsequently  extended  their  dominion  and  their 
name  over  a  portion  of  their  Demetian  neighbours.^ 

On  the  other  hand,  we  are  elsewhere  presented  with  an- 
other threefold  division  of  South  Wales,  also  resting  partly 
on  the  authority  of  a  Life  of  St.  Paternus.^     In  this  "it  is 

5  See  abovcj  p.  43. 

6  "  Monasteria  et  ecclesias  per  totam  kereticam  regionem,  quae  nunc 
Cardiganshire  ap2:»ellatur,  edificavit." — CajigravCy  folio  cclviii. 

7  "  Postquam  Ceretlcortim  ecdesiam  (ut  loquitur  vetus  Vitse  illius 
scriptor,  quem  in  Bibliotheca  Cottoniana  vidimus)  t^'  pascendo  rexisset, 
^'  regendo  pavisset." — Usher,  Britt.  Eccll.  Antt.,  c.  xiv. 

8  See  above,  p.  44.  9  Cotton  MS. 


said  tliat  tlie  wliole  of  South  Wales  was  divided  into 
three  kingdoms,  the  same  forming  three  bishoprics.  Of 
these,  the  kingdom  of  Seissyl  received  its  consecration 
from  St.  Patcrnus,  bishop  of  Llanbadarn  Vawr,  as  the 
other  two,  those  of  Rein  and  Morgant  did,  from  St. 
David  and  St.  Ehu,  (Teilo)."^  This  is  explained  by  a 
passage  in  the  Mabinogi  of  Pwyll,  which  gives  the  name 
of  Seisyllwch  to  a  district  comprising  Ceredigion  and 
Ystrad-Tywi,'-  that  is  to  say,  Cardiganshire,  Caermar- 
thenshire,  Cemaes  and  Gower.^  The  same  division  of 
South  Wales  is  implied  by  a  passage  in  the  Welsh  Laws, 
which  in  speaking  of  a  general  convention  of  the  Welsh 
nation,  informs  us  that  it  was  gathered  from  Gwynedd, 
Powys  and  Deheubarth,  the  latter  comprising  Reinwg, 
Morganwg  and  Seisyllwg.^  It  is  also  more  directly 
asserted  in  another  passage,  where  we  are  probably  to 
read  "  Seisyllwg"  for  "  Riellwg."^    In  this  latter  Reinwg 

1  Lady  Charlotte  Guest's  Mabinogion,  iii.,  p.  74,  note. 

2  Ibid.,  p.  70. 

^  The  name  of  Seisyllwch  also  occurs  in  the  Triads,  but  its  locality 
is  not  fixed. — 3Iyv.  Arch.,  ii.,  p.  60. 

*  "  Ac  yno  y  doethant  gwyr  Gwynedd  agwyr  Powys  agwyr  Deheu- 
barth a  Rieinwc  a  Morganwc  a  Seisyllwc." — Ancient  Laws  of  W(des, 
(Record  Comm.,)  p.  412.  Cf.  lolo  MSS.,  p.  401,  (74,)  where 
Essyllwg  is  read  erroneously  for  Seisyllwg.  It  is  pretty  clear  both 
from  the  structure  of  the  sentence,  and  from  external  evidence,  that  the 
three  districts  last  mentioned  are  regarded  as  divisions  of  Deheubarth, 
and  I  suspect  we  are  to  read  "  o  Rieinwc  a  Morganwc  a  Seisyllwc." 

^  "  The  South  is  in  three  parts :  Reinwg,  that  is,  the  county  of 
Rein ;  and  Riellwg ;  and  Morgannwg." — Ancient  Lcuvs  of  Wales, 
p.  687.  Compare  the  following  extract  from  the  Mabinogi  of  Math, 
whether  the  perfect  symmetry  of  the  numbers  leads  us  to  the  same 
conclusion  : — "  Pryderi  the  son  of  Pwyll  was  lord  over  the  one-and- 
twenty  Cantrefs  of  the  South ;  and  these  were  the  seven  Cantrefs  of 
Dyfed,  and  the  seven  Cantrefs  of  Morganwc,  and  the  four  Cantrefs  of 

62  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

is  explained  to  be  "  the  country  of  Rein."  Two  persons 
of  this  name  occur,  both  of  them  princes  of  Dyfed,  one 
in  the  ninth  century,  and  the  other  in  the  eleventh.^ 
This,  in  conjunction  with  a  fact  already  mentioned,  leads 
us  to  infer  that  Reinwg  is  another  name  for  Dyfed. 
But  as  Reinwg  and  Morganwg  are  derived  from  Rein 
and  Morgan,  we  must  look  for  the  origin  of  Seisyllwg  in 
Seissyl  or  Sitsyllt.  It  is  suggested  by  an  authority 
already  quoted  that  it  may  be  derived  from  Sitsyllt,  the 
father  of  the  first  Llywelyn.'^  But  we  also  meet  with 
the  name  as  that  of  one  of  the  early  princes  of  Cere- 
digion,*^ a  fact  altogether  consistent  with  the  position 
assigned  to  Seisyllwch.  Its  limits  however  considerably 
exceed  those  of  the  principality  represented  by  the  diocese 
of  Llanbadarn;  and  we  may  perhaps  infer  from  them 
that  the  tripartite  arrangement  of  South  Wales  was 
preserved,  while  the  name  and  extent  of  its  component 
districts  varied  from  time  to  time. 

It  is  impossible  to  determine  the  duration  of  the  princi- 
pality whose  existence  I  have  just  indicated  ;  but  the 
diocese  of  Llanbadarn,  which  would  probably  outlive  the 
corresponding  civil  division,  seems  to  have  lasted  nearly 

Cei-edigiawn,  and  the  three  of  Ystrad  Tywi,"  the  seven  last  mentioned 
making  up  Seisyllwch. — Lady  C.  Guest's  Mahinogion,  iii.,  p.  217. 

6  Annales  Cambriae,  Ann.  ccclxiv.  (808.)  IhicL,  post  Ann.  1016. 
Monumenta  Historica  Britannica,  vol.  i.  Brut  y  Tyw;^'sogion,  Myv. 
Arch.,  ii.,  pp.  474,  504.  The  name  also  occurs  in  a  genealogy  of 
Owen  ap  Hywel  dda,  which  seems  to  contain  the  names  of  early 
sovereigns  of  Dyfed. — Ancient  Laws  of  Wales,  Preface,  p.  v. 

7  Lady  C.  Guest's  Mahinogion,  p.  74,  note. 

8  Williams'  Biographical  Dictionary,  p.  21.  It  is  rather  curious 
that  this  person  was  contemporary  with  the  first  Rein  of  Dyfed,  as  the 
father  of  Llyweljii  was  with  the  other. 

GAEL    IN    GWYNEDD.  63 

two  centuries  from  its  foundation.^  Two  powerful  neigh- 
bours arose,  one  on  either  side.  On  the  soutli,  the 
kingdom  of  D3^fed  appears  to  have  increased  in  impor- 
tance about  the  sixth  century.  A  change  of  dynasty  is 
recorded  to  have  occurred  in  that  age.  Hyfeidd  the 
Aged,  a  foreigner,  the  son  of  St.  Lupus  of  Troyes, 
became  the  prince  of  Dyfed,  and  possibly  infused  new 
energy  into  it.^  A  prince  of  Dyfed  was  at  this  time 
elected  to  the  sovereignty  of  the  Britons,  if  we  may 
credit  the  testimony  of  Geoffrey  of  Monmouth,  possibly 
supported  in  this  instance  by  that  of  Gildas.-  At  all 
events,  the  last  trace  of  subjection  to  the  Roman  me- 
tropolis of  South  Wales  was  swept  away,  when  in  the 
sixth  century  the  archiepiscopate  was  removed  from 
Caerleon  to  Mynyw,  situated  at  the  extreme  point  of  the 
Demetian  territory.^ 

In  the  meantime  a  new  power  was  formed  on  the 
north  of  Llanbadarn,  which  even  in  the  time  of  Paternus 
seriously  menaced  it.*     The  country  of  Gwynedd,   the 

9  "  The  same  year  (a.d.  720)  the  unbelieving  Saxons  ravaged  many 
churches  of  LlandafF,  St.  David's,  and  Llanbadarn." — Brut  y  Tywy- 
sogion,  Myv.  Arch.,  ii.,  p.  472. 

1  Trioedd  Ynys  Prydain.     Myv.  Arch.,  ii.,  p.  62. 

2  Myv.  Arch.,  ii.,  p.  359.  Cf.  Ep.  Gildae: — "  Demetarum  tyranne, 
Vortipori  .  .  .  .  Tu  etiam,  insularis  draco,  multorum  tyranno- 
rum  depulsor  tam  regno  quam  etiam  vita  supradictorum  novissime  in 
stylo  prime  in  malo,  Maglocune."  The  sense  depends  partly  on  our 
placing  a  comma  before  or  after  "supradictorum."  Compare  the 
genealogy  of  Owen  ap  Hywel  dda,  already  referred  to. 

3  It  would  seem  that  this  translation  was  effected,  if  not  by  violence, 
at  least  not  by  mutual  consent. — See  Wharton,  Ang.  Sacr.,  ii.,  pp. 
667,  670,  673. 

*  "  Interea  Mailgunus  Rex  Borealium  Britonum,  ad  debellandos 
et  deprsedandos  Australes  Britones  cum  suo  exercitu  venit." — Cap- 

64  VESTIGES     OF    THE 

conquest  of  which  we  have  been  occupied  in  tracing, 
was  about  this  time  consolidated  into  one  kingdom. 
Previously  it  appears  to  have  been  under  various 
independent  rulers,  and  there  is  reason  to  think  that 
it  was  not  perfectly  united  until  a  later  period.^  Still 
the  territorial  title  of  Maelgwyn  Gwynedd,  the  son 
and  successor  of  Caswallon,  seems  to  prove  that  he 
had  acquired  that  supremacy  over  North  Wales,  which 
he  afterwards  attempted  with  partial  success  to  extend 
over  his  neighbours.  It  is  to  the  interference  of  Mael- 
gwyn that  we  are  probably  to  refer  the  fall  of  the 
principality  represented  by  Llanbadarn.  Paternus  com- 
plains of  the  tyranny  which  he  had  exercised  over  his 

grave,  fol.  cclviii.  The  authority  of  Albert  le  Grand  may  perhaps 
be  cited  as  that  of  an  independent  witness,  as  he  professes  to  have 
taken  his  account  from  the  ancient  breviaries  of  Quimper  and  Vannes. 
It  is  rather  curious  that  he  makes  mention  of  the  river  Clarach  as 
flowing  by,  and  giving  name  to,  the  monastery  of  Paternus.  This  is 
the  more  remarkable,  as  the  maps  and  topographies  of  that  time,  as 
Saxton,  (1575,)  Jansson,  (1629,)  Speed,  and  Drayton  in  the  "  Poly- 
olbion,"  give  the  names  of  Salck  and  Massalck  to  the  streams  that 
flow  through  the  vale  and  into  the  bay  of  Clarach.  It  is  therefore 
possible  that  the  name  of  Clarach  marks  an  independent  tradition. 
I  do  not  know  whether  it  occurs  in  the  Cotton  MSS.  The  writer's 
confused  notions  of  British  geography  may  be  taken  as  further  evi- 
dence. He  did  not  know  the  difference  between  AVales  and  Cornwall. 
He  writes  as  follows  : — '*  En  ce  temps  la  regnoit  en  la  Province  de 
Wales  vn  Prince  nomme  Malgonus  homme  fort  mal  conditionne, 
lequel  entendant  merveilles  de  S.  Patern,  le  voulut  tenter;  &  vne 
guerre  luy  estant  survenue  contre  le  Roy  de  Bretons  septentrionaux 
de  Fisle  [.s^'c]  il  amassa  son  armee  pres  le  fleuve  de  Clarach." — Vie 
des  Saiiicts  de  la  Bretagne  Armorique,  p.  93. 

^  Powys,  for  example,  was  not  united  to  Gwynedd,  if  dependant  on 
it.  We  read  also  of  kings  of  Mona,  and  even  of  Man,  as  well  as  a 
distinct  and  probably  subordinate  line  of  Venedocian  princes  of  Cor- 
nish origin. 

GAEL    IN    GWYNEDD.  65 

flock.  Gildas,  too,  who  seems  to  imply  that  Mona 
was  the  chief  and  original  seat  of  his  power,''  accuses 
him  of  gaining  his  authority  by  foul  means.  He  is 
represented  by  Geoffrey  of  Monmouth  as  supreme 
monarch  of  the  Britons,^  and  Gildas  enumerates  some 
of  his  immediate  predecessors  in  that  office,  whom  he 
had  successively  deprived  of  their  authority.^  There  is  a 
fantastic  legend  preserved  in  the  Welsh  Laws,  giving  an 
account  of  the  election  of  Maelgwyn  to  the  sovereignty 
of  Wales.  The  scene  of  the  council  is  laid  on  the  Dyfi 
sands,  a  portion  of  which  still  bears  the  name  of  Traeth 
Maelgwyn.^  We  may  therefore  fairly  conclude  that  the 
name  of  Maelgwyn  marks  the  consolidation  of  Gwynedd, 
and  the  commencement  at  least  of  its  aggressions  on  the 
independent  kingdoms  of  South  Wales.  The  ultimate 
result  of  his  interference  maimed  the  tripartite  division  of 
that  country,  a  division  which  would  very  probably  be  re- 
garded as  essential.  It  may  therefore  be  conceived  that 
Gwynedd  subsequently  took  its  place  among  the  king- 
doms of  Wales,  so  as  to  maintain  the  integrity  of  their 
confederation.  It  is  clearly  impossible  to  describe  with 
any  degree  of  accuracy  the  several  characteristics  of  these 
nations.  It  is  probable,  however,  that  the  Silurians  had 
been  Romanized  to  a  greater  degree  than  their  country- 
men on  the  north  and  west,  and  they  appear  to  have 
preserved  among  them  a  certain  amount  of  learning  and 
civilization.^     The  Gwendydians   on  the   contrary,  the 

6  Ep.  Gildse.  ^  My  v.  Arch.,  ii.,  p.  359.  »  Ep.  Gildae. 

9  Ancient  Laws  of  Wales,  (Record  Comm.,)  p.  412.  lolo  MSS., 
p.  461. 

1  It  is  certain  that  the  Romans  had  a  more  extended  influence  in 
this  district  than  among  the  Ordovices  and  Demetae :  two  of  the  most 


66  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

children  of  the  north,  nursed  among  the  wild  mountains 
of  Arfon  and  Meirion,  and  trained  to  war  and  conquest 
by  their  conflicts  with  the  Gael,  may  have  become  to 
the  Silurians  what  the  Northmen  were  to  the  civilized 
nations  of  southern  Europe.  They  were  from  the  begin- 
ning an  aggressive  and  conquering  race,  and  it  is  to  this 
that  we  are  to  attribute  the  supremacy  which  they  subse- 
quently obtained  over  their  countrymen,  and  the  long 
resistance  they  were  able  to  make  the  English  and 

The  period  between  the  death  of  Maelgwyn  in  the 
sixth  century,  and  the  accession  of  Rhodri  Mawr  in  the 
ninth,  seems  to  have  been  marked  by  important  changes 
in  the  south.  It  is  most  probable  that  the  principality 
of  Ceredigion,  whose  limits  in  the  days  of  Maelgwyn 
have  just  been  determined,  assumed  during  this  period  a 
form  and  extent  more  nearly  approaching  that  of  the 

important  relics  of  tlieir  power  to  be  found  in  Britain  still  exist  in 
Caerleon  and  Caerwent.  The  following  description  of  the  former  at 
the  close  of  the  twelfth  century  is  pretty  well  known  : — "  Videas  hie 
multa  pristinae  nobilitatis  adhuc  vestigia  :  palatia  immensa  aureis  olim 
tectorum  fastigiis  Romanos  fastus  imitantia,  eo  quod  a  Romanis 
principibus  primo  constructa,  et  sedificiis  egregiis  illustrata  fuissent ; 
turrim  giganteam ;  thermas  insignes ;  templorum  reliquias,  et  loca 
theatralia  muris  egregiis  partim  adhuc  extantibus,  omnia  clausa. 
Reperies  ubique  tam  intra  murorum  ambitum,  quam  extra,  aedificia 
subterranea ;  aquaram  ductus  hypogaeosque  meatus ;  et  quod  inter 
alia  notabile  censui,  stuphas  undique  videas  miro  artificio  consertas, 
lateralibus  quibusdam  et  praeaugustis  spiraculi  viis  occulte  calorem 
exhalantibus." — Giraldi  Itin.  Camh.,  c.  v.  Cf.  lolo  3ISS.,  pp. 
350,  374.  The  existence  of  religious  and  educational  establishments 
at  Lantwit  and  Llancarvan  seem  to  point  in  the  same  direction ;  the 
connexion  of  the  former  with  the  Emperor  Theodosius  may  be  fabu- 
lous, yet  the  legend  is  not  devoid  of  value. — See  Williavis'  Eccl.  Ant. 
of  the  Cymry,  p.  97,  note. 



present  county  of  Cardigan.  The  territory  of  Seisy- 
llwcli  may  have  been  formed  by  conquest  during  this 
interval.  And  there  is  reason  to  think  that  it  ac- 
quired some  degree  of  supremacy  over  the  rest  of 
South  Wales.  For  we  find  it  recorded  that  the  royalty 
of  South  Wales,  including  the  actual  dominion  of 
Dyfed,  with  a  sort  of  unrecognised  claim  over  Essy- 
llwg,  was  conveyed  to  Rhodri  by  his  marriage  with 
Angharad,  the  daughter  of  Meurig,  king  of  Ceredigion.- 
In  Gwynedd,  in  the  meantime,  the  sovereignty  of  the 
descendants  of  Cunedda  was  not  uninterrupted.  A 
passage  which  Ave  have  already  cited  hints  that  a 
formidable  rebellion  was  raised  by  the  subjugated 
Gw3^ddyl  in  a  very  early  period ;  ^  and  in  the  seventh 
century  the  dominion  of  the  country  fell  into  the  hands 
of  one  Cadafael,  the  assassin  of  lago  ab  Beli,  king  of 
Gwynedd.*  From  the  epithet  Gwyllt^  attached  to  his 
liame,  and  the  fact  of  his  being  described  as  a  stranger 
monarch,^  one  cannot  help  suspecting  that  he  was  one  of 
the  descendants  of  the  Gael,  who  may  very  well  have 
maintained  themselves  as  a  distinct  nation  until  that 
age.  The  "  Arymes  Prydain  Fawr,"  formerly  ascribed  to 
Taliesin,  and  subsequently  to  Golyddan,  in  the  seventh 
century,  might  perhaps  have  been  regarded  as  nearly 
contemporary  evidence  of  the  existence  of  Gwyddyl  in 
Mona  as  a  distinct  and  important  nation,  even  after  their 

2  Myv.  Arch.,  ii.,  p.  G2.  ^  gge  above,  p.  19. 

•*  Trioedd  Yyns  Prydain.     Myv.  Arch.,  ii.,  p.  65. 

5  The  epithet  is  apphed  to  at  least  one  person  of  Irish  origin,  Idio 
the  son  of  Sutric. — Williams'  Biographical  Dictionary,  p.  236. 

6  Trioedd  Ynys  Prydain.     Myv.  Ai-ch.,  ii.,  p.  62. 

68  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

defeat  by  Caswallawn,  had  it  not  been  determined  by  a 
high  authority  to  be  of  a  later  date.^  It  is  evident 
however  that  some  such  distinction  may  be  traced  to 
a  much  later  period,  in  the  internal  organisation  of 
Gwynedd,  as  compared  with  the  south.  Not  to  men- 
tion the  diversity  of  local  customs,  (as  the  mode  of 
inheritance,  for  instance,**)  which  taken  alone  would  only 
prove  the  early  separation  of  the  respective  districts,  we 
find  decided  marks  of  conquest  in  Gwynedd,  which  are 
absent  in  Dyfed  and  Essyllwg.  For,  in  the  first  jDlace, 
a  kind  of  villenage  existed  in  the  former,  more  complete 
and  oppressive  than  was  permitted  in  the  south,^  and  we 
are  not  without  grounds  for  the  inference,  that  this  sys- 
tem was  in  some  way  connected  with  the  co-existence  of 
distinct  races/  We  have  also  a  species  of  aristocracy  in 
North  Wales,  unknown  in  the  southern  portions  of  the 
country.  TJie  fifteen  tribes  of  Gwynedd,  dating,  as  it  is 
said,  from  the  tenth  century,  but  probably  representing  a 
state  of  things  which  had  then  been  some  time  in  exist- 
ence, appear  to  have  exercised  a  certain  degree  of  politi- 
cal power,  which  was  elsewhere  in  the  hands  of  the  nation." 

7  Myv.  Arch.,  i.,  p.  156.  Stephens'  Literature  of  the  Kymry,  p. 
287,  sq.  ^  Ancient  Laws  of  Wales,  p.  84. 

9  Howel  Dcla  "  permitted  every  uchelwr  .  .  to  rule  his  bonds- 
men according  to  conditional  bondage  in  South  Wales,  and  perpetual 
bondage  in  Gwynedd." — Ibid.,  p.  573. 

1  <'  The  sons  of  Cunedda  led  the  Cymry,  and  expelled  the  Gwydd- 
elians  from  the  country,  making  prisoners  of  such  as  had  their  lives 
spared.  .  .  .  And  none  of  them  remained  in  the  country,  except 
such  as  were  made  captives  for  ever,  (naviyn  a  wnaed  yn  gaethion  a 
hynny  yn  drafjywydd).—Iolo  MSS.,  pp.  522,  523,  (123).  Com- 
pare this  with  the  perpetual  bondage  (cathiwet  tragwydawl)  of  the 
passage  cited  in  the  preceding  note. 

=  lolo  MSS.,  pp.  405,  407,  478. 

GAEL    IN    GWYNEDD.  69 

They  were  popularly  believed  to  be  the  pure  representa- 
tives of  the  Cymry  as  distinguished  from  the  race  which 
had  been  corrupted  by  an  admixture  of  Gaelic  blood ; 
and  it  seems  probable  that  this  view  was  at  least  an  ap- 
proximation to  the  truth.'     In  Powys,  a  similar  class 
existed  under  another  name,  and  were  ascribed  to  a  like 
orio-in/     We  are  probably  to  refer  to  the  same  source, 
the  existence  at  an  early  period  of  certain  clans,  to  whom 
peculiar  immunities  were  granted.     One  of  these  derived 
its  name  from  the  conqueror  of  Gwynedd,  Caswallawn 
Law  Hir,  and  another  was  connected  with  the  district  of 
Lleyn.^      The   men    of   Arfon    also    enjoyed    particular 
privileges,  which  were  regarded  as  memorials  of  their 
resisting  and  requiting  an  invasion  of  the  Strathclyde 
Welsh,   in   the   time    of  Rhun,   the  son    of  Maelgwyn 
Gwynedd.*^     We  may  perhaps  infer  from  the  record  of 
this   transaction,    that   the   migrations    from    the  north 
which  we  have  traced  to  the  fifth  century  were  continued 
in  the  sixth,  as  they  were  certainly  revived  in  the  ninth.^ 
The  date  of  Rhodri  Mawr  may  be  fixed  as  that  in 
which  the  princes  of  Gwynedd  first  attained  their  full 

3  lolo  MSS.,  pp.  477,  478. 

4  Ihid.  They  were  called  "  Gwelygorddau,"  as  distinguished 
from  "  Lhvythau." 

5  "  The  three  Banded  Families  (Teulu)  of  the  isle  of  Britain :  the 
family  of  Caswallawn  Law  Hir  ;  the  family  of  Rhiwallawn  the  son  of 
Urien ;  and  the  family  of  Belyn  of  Lleyn.  That  is,  they  were  so 
named,  because  there  was  neither  head  nor  sovereignty  over  them,  so 
far  as  the  liberty  of  their  families  and  possessions  reached,  if  they 
were  questioned  within  those  limits,  save  the  jurisdiction  of  the  country 
and  people." — Trioedd  Ynys  Pry  dam.     My  v.  Arch.,  ii.,  p.  62. 

6  Ancient  Laws  of  Wales,  pp.  50,  51. 

7  Brut  y  Tywysogion.     My  v.  Arch.,  ii.,  p.  582.     See  above,  p.  4L 

70  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

power.  By  inheritance,  stratagem,  or  conquest,  they  had 
made  themselves  masters  of  Powys  on  the  east,  and 
Ceredigion  on  the  south,  the  latter  apparently  involving 
the  sovereignty  of  Dyfed.  The  division  of  Wales  among 
three  of  the  sons  of  Rhodri  seems  to  be  a  recognition 
of  the  ancient  threefold  confederation.*^  The  kings  of 
Gwent  and  Morganwg  resisted  their  aggressions,  so  that 
the  three  constituent  sovereignties  were  henceforward 
those  of  Gwynedd,  Powys  and  Deheubarth  on  the  south, 
the  latter  including  the  ancient  dominions  of  Ceredigion 
and  Dyfed,  with  a  vague  claim  over  Gwent  and  Mor- 
ganwg.^ Subsequently  to  this  division,  we  read  of  petty 
sovereigns  of  Ceredigion  and  Dyfed,^  (the  latter  term 
being  used  in  its  narrowest  sense,)  who  apparently  stood 
in  an  ill-defined  relation  to  the  prince  paramount  of 
Deheubarth,  and  occasionally  resisted  his  power."  It  is 
also  worthy  of  notice  that  the  kingdom  of  South  Wales 

8  It  is  important  to  remember  that  Anarawd,  Cadell  and  Merfyn 
were  not  the  only  sons  of  Rhodri. 

9  The  preface  to  the  laws  of  Hywel  Dda  is  especially  worthy  of 
notice.  The  codes  of  Gwynedd  and  Dyfed  entitle  him  "  king  of  all 
Wales,"  that  of  Gwent  merely  "king  of  Wales,"  adding  that  he 
enacted  the  laws  "  when  Wales  was  in  his  possession  in  its  bounds." 
— Ancient  Lares  of  Wales,  (Record  Comm.,)  pp.  1,  1G4,  303. 

1  JE.  g.,  Gwaethfoed,  king  of  Cardigan,  and  Hyfeidd,  king  of  Dyfed, 
the  latter  of  whom  was  involved  in  warfare  with  the  sons  of  Rhodri. 
— Asserius  de  rehb.  gestt.  ^Ifrecli,  Cf.  Annates  Camhrice  Ann. 
ccccxlviii.,  (892).  We  also  find  a  distinction  made  betAveen  two 
grades  of  kings,  the  Cuneddian  princes  of  Gwynedd,  Powys  and 
Deheubarth  being  "  crowned  kings,"  and  those  of  Ceredigion,  Mor- 
ganwg and  Fferyllwg  (between  Wye  and  Severn)  being  "  fettered." 
Trioedd  Yni/s  Prydain,  Myv.  Arch.,  ii.,  p.  64.  Cf.  lolo  MSS., 
pp.  407,  408,  449,  where  the  two  princes  last  named  are  excluded 
from  the  Cuneddian  confederation. 

2  We  hear  of  "  lords"  of  Dyfed  down  to  a  very  late  period. 

GAEL    IN    GWYNEDD.  71 

now  lost,  for  the  most  part,  the  ancient  national  appel- 
lation of  Dyfed,  which  as  I  have  said,  was  lienceforth 
used  in  a  narrower  sense,  and  assumed  that  of  Deheu- 
barth  or  Dinefawr,  having  become  a  political  rather  than 
a  national  division.  Wlien  the  Cuneddian  princes  were 
established  in  it,  they  made  continual  aggresssions  on  the 
domains  of  the  Silurian  princes.  In  tlie  reign  of  Hy  wel 
Dda,  its  eastern  limits  were  fixed  at  Crickhowel  in 
Brecknockshire,  and  a  continual  warfare  was  waged 
between  the  two  neighbouring  powers,  until  the  inde- 
pendence of  Morganwg  terminated  with  the  reign  of 
lestyn  the  son  of  Gwrgan.  It  is  clear  that  the  Cune- 
ddian princes  of  South  Wales  had  been  continually  pres- 
sing on  it,  from  a  corresponding  change  which  had  taken 
place  in  the  ecclesiastical  divisions.  Urban,  bishop  of 
Llandaff,  writing  to  Pope  Calixtus  II.  in  the  twelfth 
century,  complains  that  the  bishops  of  St.  David's  had 
taken  from  his  diocese  Ystrad  Tywy,  Gower,  Kidwelly, 
and  Cantref  Bychan.^  This  appears  to  be  an  ecclesi- 
astical version  of  the  fact  that  these  districts,  or  the 
greater  part  of  them,  had  passed  from  the  dominion  of 
the  princes  of  Essyllwg  into  that  of  the  Cuneddian 
monarchs  of  South  Wales. 

Much  more  might  be  written  on  this  head,  but  to  trace 
fully  the  consequences  of  the  Cuneddian  migration  would 
be  in  effect  to  write  the  history  of  Wales.  I  will  notice 
one  further  result,  because  it  has  lasted  to  the  present 
time,  and  is  therefore  in  some  respects  the  most  impor- 
tant, as  it  is  the  most  obvious.    The  inhabitants  of  North 

3  Wharton,  Ang.  Sac,  vol.  ii.,  pp.  673,  674.  Cf.  lolo  MSS.,  pp. 
373,  374. 

72  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

and  South  Wales  are  clearly  two  different  races.  Of  the 
distinction  of  dialect  I  have  spoken  elsewhere ;  there  is 
is  also  a  physiological  difference.  On  this  head  Dr. 
Prichard  observes  : — 

"  In  North  Wales,  a  fair  complexion  and  blue  eyes  prevail, 
according  to  the  observation  both  of  Dr.  Macculloch  and  Mr. 
Price.  There  is  probably  no  part  of  Britain  wliere  the  inhabi- 
tants are  less  intermixed  with  Saxon  or  German  blood,  certainly 
they  are  much  less  intermixed  than  the  South  Welsh.  In  parts 
of  South  Wales,  particularly  in  Glamorganshire,  black  eyes  are 
very  prevalent,  and  the  hair  is  frequently  black."* 

The  author  of  the  "  Physical  Atlas  of  Natural  Pheno- 
mena" confirms  these  observations  as  regards  the  diffe- 
rence of  complexion  prevalent  in  North  and  South 
Wales ;  and  hence  concludes  that  the  inhabitants  of  the 
former  are  not  unmixed  with  a  Teutonic,  perhaps  a 
Belgic  element.^  Finally,  I  have  extracted  these  re- 
marks from  an  able  article  in  the  Quarterly  Review. 
They  bear  closely  on  the  subject  of  this  paper,  although 
they  certainly  do  not  coincide  with  it  in  detail  : — 

"  Others  again  who  observe  how  the  South  Wales  features, 
after  being  interrupted  in  North  Wales  by  an  inlet  of  the  Cim- 
bric  or  more  northerly  type,  reappear  in  Anglesey,  may  rather 
suspect  that  a  refluent  Gaelic  w^ave  has  been  thrown  back  from 
Ireland  upon  the  north  and  south  extremities  of  the  Principality. 
This  latter  assumption  is  countenanced  not  only  by  the  philo- 
looical  observations  of  E.  Llwyd,  but  by  certain  Welsh  traditions 
that  fall  within  the  historical  period."'' 

Is  it  too  great  a  refinement  to  add,  that  the  mutual 

*  Physical  History  of  Mankind,  vol.  iii.,  p.  199. 

5  Johnston's  Physical  Atlas. 

6  Quarterly  Review,  No.  clxxiv.,  September,  1850.—"  The  Church 
and  Education  in  Wales." 

GAEL    IN    GWYNEDD.  73 

antipathy  which  still  subsists  between  the  extremities  of 
the  Principality  may  be  taken  as  an  additional  proof  of 
different  origin  ?  It  is  certain  that  in  earlier  times  a 
strong  principle  of  repulsion  existed  in  the  many  distinct 
though  kindred  races  composing  the  population  of 
Wales,  which  caused  endless  divisions  and  subdivisions 
of  territory,  and,  working  counter  to  the  principle  of 
political  centralization,  generated  continual  intestine 
wars.  The  language  applied  by  M.  Thierry  to  the 
inhabitants  of  southern  Gaul,  may  with  trifling  altera- 
tions be  used  of  the  Welsh  throughout  the  period  of 
their  independence : — 

"  They  detested  all  foreigners,  yet  a  restless  turbulence,  a  wild 
passion  for  novelty  and  excitement  impelled  them  to  seek  their 
alliance,  whilst  they  were  torn  by  domestic  quarrels  and  petty 
rivalries  between  man  and  man,  town  and  town,  province  and 
province.  .  .  .  Nature  had  given  them  all,  all  except  political 
prudence  and  union,  as  descendants  of  the  same  race,  as  children 
of  one  country.  Their  enemies  combined  to  destroy  them,  but 
they  would  not  combine  to  love  each  other,  to  defend  each  other, 
to  make  one  common  cause.     They  paid  a  severe  penalty  for 

this."  7 

Shall  we  say  that  this  spirit  is  extinct  yet  ?  Does  it 
not  survive — happily  in  the  only  possible  form — in  the 
absurd  local  attachments,  the  mutual  dislike,  or  rather 
the  total  ignoring  of  each  other's  existence,  which  is  still 
an  active  principle  among  our  countrymen  ?  Is  it  not 
conspicuous  and  energetic  in  their  utter  inability  to  com- 
bine for  a  patriotic,  as  distinguished  from  a  national 
purpose,  for  anything  in  fact  but  to  keep  alive  the  effete 
traditions  of  a   very   questionable  antiquity,  and  to  re- 

7  Norman  Conquest,  b.  viii. 


74  VESTIGES    OF    THE    GAEL. 

enact  what  they  believe  to  be  the  ceremonies  of  ancestral 
heathenism  ?^ 

8  It  may  be  as  well  to  mention  two  or  three  points  affecting  my 
argument  which  have  come  under  my  notice  during  the  printing  of 
this  paper.  In  p.  8  I  said  that  Bullium  has  been  identified  with 
Builth.  It  is  with  greater  probability  regarded  as  another  form  of 
the  name  Burrium  (Usk).  In  that  case  one  name  less  has  been  pre- 
served in  South  Wales,  not  one  more  being  lost.  I  have  also  identified 
Stucia  with  the  Ystwyth,  after  Baxter  and  others,  (p.  7).  In  the  map 
of  Roman  Britain  lately  published  by  the  Record  Commission,  ( 3Ionu- 
menta  Historica  Britannka,  vol.  i.,)  Stucia  is  given  as  the  name  of 
the  Dyfi.  In  that  case  it  is  to  be  regarded  as  a  lost  name,  and  rather 
referred  to  North  Wales.  In  fact  the  Ystwyth  is  scarcely  of  sufficient 
importance  to  be  singled  out  by  Ptolemy,  without  making  mention  of 
the  Dyfi  and  Mawddach ;  and  it  is  only  by  considerable  twisting  that 
the  names  of  either  the  Stucia  or  the  Tuerobis  can  be  got  out  of  the 
Ystwyth  and  Teifi,  In  p.  15  I  do  not  think  that  enough  has  been 
made  of  the  testimony  of  Rhyddmarch  to  the  settlement  of  Gael  in 
Pembrokeshire.  He  describes  Boia,  the  persecutor  of  St.  David,  as 
"  Scottus  quidam."  These  words  are  omitted  by  Giraldus  in  his 
rifacimento  of  Rhyddmarch,  probably  because  he  was  not  aware 
that  any  Scots  had  ever  occupied  that  district.  The  tradition  then 
had  died  out  by  his  time ;  and  as  Rhyddmarch  died  only  half  a 
century  before  the  birth  of  Giraldus,  one  can  hardly  conceive  that 
such  a  tradition  would  be  very  general  in  the  days  of  Rhyddmarch. 
But  as  even  in  those  times  historians  would  avoid  improbabilities, 
except  in  the  matter  of  miracles,  Rhyddmarch  would  not  have  said 
"  Scottus  quidam,"  in  the  plain  matter-of-fact  way  he  does,  without 
something  like  earlier  documentary  evidence.  It  is  therefore  probable 
that  this  passage  embodies  a  tradition  of  very  high  antiquity. 


The  names  in  small  capitals  are  found  in,  or  derived  from,  ancient 
authorities,  including  Richard  of  Cirencester ;  those  in  Italics 
are  names  in  ordinary  use  ;  and  those  in  CAPITALS  include 
obsolete  names,  with  such  as  remain  only  in  Welsh,  or  are 
retained  as  the  appellations  of  hundreds  and  lordships,  and  are 
therefore  unlikely  to  be  generally  known. 

Aherfraw :  27,  37. 

Abergavenny,  Gobannium  :  6,  37,  39. 

Abergele:  35. 

Abermenay,  on  the  Menai  Straits :  38. 

Aberystwyth:  59. 

Ad  Menapiam,  see  Menapia  :  9. 

Ad  Vigesimum,  Castle  Flemish  (?) :  9,  11. 

Anglesey,  Mona,  MON  :  24,  27,  29,  32,  33,  34,  35,  37,  38,  72. 

ARDUDWY,  a  Commot  in  the  Cantref  DINODYNG,  occu- 
pying the  north-western  portion  of  Merionethshire :  32. 

ARFON,  Caernarvonshire,  including  ARDUDWY  in  Merioneth- 
shire: 18,  27,  28,  30,  31,  46,  52,  QQ,  69. 

ARWYSTLI,  a  Cantref  of  POWYS,  occupying  parts  of  Mont- 
gomeryshire and  Radnorshire,  about  the  sources  of  the  Wye 
and  Severn :  32,  33,  42,  46. 

AUSTRALES  BRITONES,  the  people  of  South  Wales:  63. 

Ballium,  see  Burrium  :  9. 
Banchorium,  Bangor  Iscoed:  8,  11. 

76  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

Bangor  Iscoed,  Banchorium  (?) :  8. 

BEITWY(?):  26. 

JBerwyn  Mountains :  34. 

Blorenge:  39. 

Bodfari,  Varis,  near  St.  Asaph :  6. 

BoMiuM,  BoviuM,  Coiohridge  or  Boverton :  6,  9. 

BOREALES  BRITONES,  the  people  of  North  Wales:  63. 

Boverton,  Bovium  (?) :  6. 

BoviuM,  BoMiUM :  6. 

Brannogenium,  Branogenium,   Braunogenium,  near  Leint- 

wardinei?):  8,  9. 
Bravinium  :  6. 
Brecknockshire,  GARTH  MATHRIN,  BRYCHEINIOG :  20, 

21,38,39,59,  71. 
Brigantes,  a  tribe  inhabiting  the  northern  counties  of  England, 

and  found  in  Ireland:  47,  51. 
BRITANNIA,  applied  to  Wales:  58. 
Britannia  Secunda,  a  Roman  province  nearly  corresponding 

to  Wales :  56. 
BRITONES,  applied  to  the  Welsh :  63. 
Builth,  BuLLiuM  (?) :  8,  74, 
BuLLiuM,  Builth  ij),  or  see  Burrium:  8,  74. 
BuLTRUM,  see  Burrium  :  9. 
Burrium,  Usk :  6,  74. 

BUTHIR,  probably  an  error  for  GUHIR,  GOWER,  q.  v. :  41. 
Bwlch  y  Gwyddel,  "  Gael  pass  :"  35. 

Cader  Idris,  "  Idris'  chair  :"  39. 

CAER  DATHYL,  Pen  y  Gaer,  near  Conway :  25. 

CAEREINION,  a  Commot  of  POWYS,  in  Montgomeryshire:  83. 

CAER  GAWCH  (?) :  20. 

Caerleon,  Isca  Silurum  :  6,  56,  63,  QQ. 

Caermarthen,  Maridunum,  Muridunum  :  6. 

Caermarthenshire :  39,44,61. 



Caernarvonshire :  34,  35,  38. 
Caerwent,  Venta  Silurum  :  6,  66. 

Cangani,  Cangi,  Cangiani,  Ceangi,  occupied  the  north-western 
portion  of  North  Wales:  5,  7,  8,  9,  10,  11,  12,  24,  51,  57, 
Canganorum  Promontorium,  Braich  rj  pwll:  7. 
Canovius  Fl.,  see  Tossibus  :  9. 
CANTRED,  THE,  see  MEIRION  :  18,  19,  30,  31. 
CANTREF  BYCHAN  in  Caermarthenshire :  71. 
Capel  Curig :  35. 
CAPEL   Y    GWYDDEL,   "Gael   chapel,"    see   CERRIG  Y 

GWYDDEL:  35. 
Cardiff,  Tibia  Amnis  :  7. 
Cardigan:  36. 
Cardigan  Bay:  59. 
Cardiganshire,  CEREDIGION :  34,  36,  38,  39,  41,  44,  59,  60, 

61,  67,  70. 
Carnabii,  or  Cornavii,  a  nation  lying  to  the  east  of  the  Ordo- 

viCES :  11,  12. 
Cefn  Gwyddel,  "Gael  ridge:"  36. 

CEMAES,  a  Cantref  forming  the  northern  part  of  Pembroke- 
shire: 61. 
CEREDIGION,  a  division  nearly  coextensive  with  the  present 
county  of  Cardigan:  32,  33,  34,  38,  42,  43,  44,  46,  50,  56, 
60,  61,  62,  m,  67,  70. 
CERETICI,  the  people  of  CEREDIGION  :  60. 
CERRIG  Y  GWYDDEL,  "  Gael  stones,"  Holyhead:  14,  18, 

19,  33,  35. 
CKIG\5YAA,  Kidwelly :  lb. 
Chester,  Deva:  6. 
Clarach:  64. 

Clawdd  JDdewi,  "  St.  David's  dyke :"  59. 
Clegyr  Foia,  "  Boia's  rock :"  1 6. 
Clwyd  River:  34,  41. 
Clwyd,  Vale  of:  32. 

78  VESTIGES    OF    THE    • 

Clwydian  kills:  34. 

COELEYON,  a  Commot  in  the  upper  part  of  the  Vale  of  Clywd; 

at  present  part  of  Denbighshire :  33. 
COMMOT,  THE,  see  MEIRION  :  27,  30. 
CoNOviuM,  Caerhun,  on  the  Conwy:  6,  8. 
Conway:  35. 

Conwy,  river ;  Tisobis,  Tossibus,  or  Canovius:  6,  10,  24. 
Crickhowel:  71. 

Crugyn  Gwyddel,  "  Gael  knoll :"  36. 
Cwys  yr  Ychain  Bannog,  "  Buffaloes'  furrow  :"  59. 
CytiauW  Gwydd'lod,  "Gael's  cots:"  35,  39. 

Dee,  Deva,  DWFRDWY  :  6,  10. 

DEHEUBARTH,  South  Wales,  including  or  excluding  GWENT 
and  MORGANWG,  but  most  commonly  used  in  the  nar- 
rower sense  :  61,  70,  71. 

Demet^,  Demeci^,  Demetia,  Demetian,  DYFED  ;  the  in- 
habitants of  the  western  portion  of  South  Wales,  probably 
including  Cardiganshire,  Caermarthenshire,  and  Pembroke- 
shire :  8,  9,  11,  15,  41,  44,  51,  56,  58,  60,  62,  63,  65. 

Denbighshire,  DENBIGHLAND  :  33,  34. 

Deva  Colonia,  Chester  on  the  Dee :  6,  8. 

Deva  Fl.,  DWFRDWY,  Dee:  9,  11. 

DINAS  FFARAON,  Dinas  Emrys,  in  Snowdon:  18,  19,  22,  25. 


DINODYNG,  a  Cantref  of  ARFON,  including  parts  of  Caer- 
marthenshire  and  Merionethshire :  32,  33, 

DOGFEILYNG,  a  Commot  in  the  Vale  of  Clwyd,  adjoining 
COELEYON  ;  part  of  the  present  county  of  Denbigh  :  32, 

Dol  y  Gwyddyl,  "  Gael  mead  :"  36. 

DYFED,  a  division  nearly  coextensive  with  Pembrokeshire,  at 
other  times  used  for  the  country  of  the  Demet^,  q.  v.  :  6, 
15,  16,  19,  20,  25,  38,  41,  42,  43,  56,  58,  62,  63,  67,  68, 
70,  71. 

GAEL    IN    GWYNEDD.  79 

Dyfi,  Stucia  (?)  :  44,  65,  74. 

DYNM AEL,  a  Commot  of  POWYS,  at  the  north-eastern  angle 
of  Merionethshire :  33. 

EDEYRNION,  a  Commot  of  POWYS,  near  the  upper  part  of 
the  vale  of  the  Dee:  32,  33,  42,  46. 

EIFIONYDD,  a  Commot  in  Cantref  DINODYNG,  now  form- 
ing part  of  Caernarvonshire :  32. 

Eriri  Mons,  ERYRI,  Snowdon :  9. 

ESSYLLWG,  SiLURES,  the  south-eastern  principality  of  Wales, 
consisting  ultimately  of  GWENT  and  MORGANWG,  and 
occasionally  spoken  of  by  either  of  those  names  :  6,  42,  43, 
58,  67,  68,  71. 

EUBONIA,  see  Man:  15,  47. 

FFERYLLWG,   or  FFERLEGS,  a  principality  between  the 

Wye  and  the  Severn :  70. 

GARTH  MATHRIN,  BRYCHEINIOG,  Brecknockshire:  17, 

Gavenny :  6. 

GEIRIONYDD,  a  district  in  Caernarvonshire:  42. 

Gen  AN  I  A,  included  the  territory  of  the  Carnabii  and  Ordo- 
viCEs(?):   12. 

Glamorganshire,  MORGANWG,  GWLAD  MORGAN  :  17,  36, 
38,  39,  72. 

Gobaneum,  Gobannium,  Abergavenny :  6,  9. 


GOWER,  GWYR,  GUIR,  the  western  promontory  of  Glamor- 
ganshire: 15,  17,  19,  20,  21,  30,  40,  41,  42,  43,  61,  71. 

GWENT,  a  division  nearly  coextensive  with  Monmouthshire; 
the  name  is  sometimes  used  for  ESSYLLWG,  q.  v. :  6,  12, 
19,  42,  43,  70. 

Gwyddel-fynydd,  "  Gael  mountain  :"  36. 

Gwyddel-wern,  "  Gael  alder-wood  :"  36. 

80  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

GWYNEDD,  North  Wales,  sometimes  including  and  sometimes 
distinguished  from  POWYS ;  it  also  appears  at  one  time  to 
have  been  used  in  a  narrower  sense:  3,  11,  12,  13,  15,  16, 
18,  19,  21,  22,  24,  25,  26,  30,  31,  32,  33,  40,  41,  42,  43, 
44,  45,  47,  50,  52,  53,  55,  56,  57,  61,  63,  64,  65,  67,  68, 
69,  70. 

GWYR,  see  GOWER  :  42. 

GWYRFAI,  Gerfai,  a  stream  near  Caernarfon :  19. 

Harlech :  36. 
Herefordshire :  59. 
Heriri  Mons,  Trawsfjnydd:  8. 

Y  GWYDDEL,  or  LLAN  Y  GWYDDEL :  25,  35,  37,  39. 

IscA  Leg.  H.  Augusta,  Isca  Colonia,  Isca  Silurum,  CAER- 
LEON  AR  WYSG,  Caerleon  on  the  Usk :  6,  9. 

KEDWELI,  Kidwelly:  41. 

Kentchester,  Magna  :   11. 


Kidwelly  :  1 5,  7 1 . 

Lantwit,    Lantwit    Major,    LLANELLTUD-FAWR,    CAER- 

Leucarum,  ABERLLYCHWR,  Loughor :  6,  9. 
Llanhadarn-fawr,  Llanhadarn:  58,  59,  61,  62,  63,  64. 
Llanheris :  35,  39. 
Llancarvan :  66. 
Llandaff:  58,  63,  71. 
Llanidloes:  36. 
Llanio,  Lovantium  :  8. 
LLAN   Y   GWYDDYL,    "  Gael    church,"    see    CERRIG   Y 

GWYDDYL:   18,33,35. 
Llechryd:  37. 

GAEL    IN    GWYNEDD.  81 

Llettij  V  Cijmro,  "  The  Cymro's  Iodizing  :"  3G. 

LLEYN,  the  western  peninsula  of  Caernarvonshire:  22,  33,  35, 

37,  38,  69. 
LLOEGR,  LOEGRIA,  England:  52. 
Llioyn  GwT/ddel,  "  Gael  grove  :"  36. 
Llicijn  y  Gwyddijl,  "  Gael  grove  :"  36. 
Llychwr :  6,  36. 

LovANTiuM,  LovENTiuM,  Llamo  in  Cardiganshire :  8,  9. 
Loughor,  Leucarum  :  6. 

Machynlleth :  36. 

MAELIENYDD,  a  Cantref  of  POWYS,  including  the  northern 

part  of  Radnorshire,  with  parts  of  Montgomeryshire:  32,  46. 
MAELORON,  two  Coramots  of  POWYS,  including  parts  of 

Denbighshire  and  Flintshire :  33. 
Maentwrog :  36. 
MAES  GWYDDNO,  CANTREF  GWAELOD,  a  district  which 

is  said  to  have  been  overwhelmed  by  the  sea,  in  Cardigan 

Bay:  20. 
Magna,  Kentchester  in  Herefordshire:  6,  9,  11. 
Man,  MANAU,  MANAW,  EUBONIA:  14,  15,  18,  25,31,46, 

47,  48,  49,  64. 
MANAU,  MANAW,  Man:  46,  47. 
MANAU  GUOTODIN,  probably  the  county  of  the  Ottadini, 

'  Northumberland,  &c. :   14,  15,  47. 
MANUBA(?):   13. 
Maridunum,   Muridunum,  CAERFYRDDIN,    Caermarthen: 

MASSALCK :  64. 
Maioddach :  39,  74. 
Mediolanum,  Meifodi?) :  6,  8,  9. 
MEIRION,  MEIRIONYDD,  a  Cantref  occupying  the  southern 

portion  of  the  present  county  o{ Merioneth:  31,  33,  42,  46, 


82  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

Menai,  Fretum  Meneviacum  :  9. 

Menapia,  MYNYW,  MENEVIA,  St.  David's:  9,  16. 

Menapii,  a  tribe  occupying  the  counties  of  Waterford  and  Wex- 
ford: 16. 

MENEVIA,  see  MYNYW  :   15,  16. 

Meneviacum  Fretum,  Menai:  9. 

Merioneth,  Merionethshire,  MEIRION,  &c. :  30,  34,  36,  38,  39, 

MON,  Mona,  Angleseij :  14,  37,  46. 

MoNA,  MON,  Anglesey:  6,  9,  17,  18,  19,  22,  24,  25,  28,  30,  31, 
34,  64,  Qb,  67. 

Monmouthshire,  GWENT :  37,  38. 

Montgomeryshire :  34,  36,  38,  39. 

MORGAN WG,  a  district  extending  from  the  Neath  to  the  Ush; 
here  sometimes  used  for  the  whole  of  ESSYLLWG,  q.  v. : 
43,  61,  62,  70,  71. 

Muriau  V  Gwyddel,  "  The  Gael's  walls  :"  36,  39. 

Muriau  V  Givyddelod,  "  The  Gaels'  walls :"  36,  39. 

Mynydd  y  Givyddel,  "  Gael  mountain  :"  35. 

MYNYW,  MENEVIA,  Menapia,  -S^.  David's:  9,  63. 

Nant  y  Gwyddel,  "  Gael  brook :"  36. 

Neath,  Nidum  :  6. 

Neath  River,  NEDD  :  20. 

NEDD,  River  Neath :  6. 

Newport:  36. 

New  Quay:  36. 

Nidum,  Neath :  6,  9. 

North  Wales,  North  Welsh,  Ordovices  and  Cangani,  GWY- 
NEDD  and  POWYS :  5,  6,  7,  8,  10,  11,  12,  13,  17,  18, 
21,  25,  26,  30,  33,  35,  37,  41,  43,  46,  47,  51,  52,  54,  55, 
64,  68,  72. 

OcTAPiTARUM  Pro^montorium,  Octorupium,  aS<.  Dttvid's  Head: 

GAEL    IN    GWYNEDD.  83 

Ordovices,  Ordovicia,  the  peoi)le  inhabiting  North  Wales, 
with  the  exception  of  the  noitli-vvestcni  portion  :  5,  7,  11, 
12,  56,  57,  65. 

OSWEILIAWN,  the  country  round  Oswcstnj :  32. 

Oswestri/,  CROESOSWALLT :  32,  33. 

Ottadini,  the  inhixhit-dnts,  oi'  Northumberland,  kc,  see  MANAU 

Pant  Gioyddel,  "  Gael  dell :"  36. 

Pant  yr  Wyddeles,  "  The  Gael  woman's  dell :"  36. 

Pembrokeshire,  DYFED  :  21,  36,  38,  39,  43. 

Pentre  Gicyddal,  "  Gael  hamlet :"  35. 

Pentre  Gwyddel,  "  Gael  hamlet :"  35,  37. 

Plinlimon:  36,  39. 

Porth  y  Gwyddel,  "  Gael  port :"  35. 

POWYS,  a  principality  comprising  Montgomeryshire  and  Rad- 
norshire, with  parts  of  Flintshire,  Denbighshire  and  Merion- 
ethshire, and  of  the  border  counties  of  England  :  18,  31,  33, 
46,  61,  64,  69,  70. 

Preseleu  Mountains :  34,  36. 

Radnorshire:  34,  36,  38,  39,  41,  59. 

REINWG,   REIN,  COUNTRY   OF,  probably  another  name 

for  DYFED,  q.  V. :  61,62. 
Rhatostathybius,  Rhatostaubius,  Tibia  Amnis,  Taff:  7. 
Rhayader:  36. 
RHEGED,  a  principality  extending   from    the  Neath  to   the 

Tyioy:  17,  38,  39,  41,  58. 
RHUFNONIOG,  a  Cantref,  part  of  Denbighshire :  32,  33. 
RIELLWG,  probably  an  error  for  SEISYLLWG,  q.  v. :  61. 
Ross,  Sariconium  :  9. 

ROSY  VALE,  VALLIS  ROSINA,  St.  David's :  15. 
RuTUNiUM  :  6. 

Sabrina,  Sabriana  ^st,  HAFREN,  Severn :  5,  6,  7. 

84  VESTIGES    OF    THE 

Saint  David's,  Menapia,  MENEVIA,  MYNYW  :  7,  9,  16,  58, 

59,  63,  71. 
SALCK:  64. 
Sariconium,  Ross:  9. 

Segontium,  Caernarvon,  on  the  Seiont :  6,  8,  9. 

SEISSYLLWG,  SEISSYLLWCH,  an  ancient  principality  com- 
prising CEREDIGION  and  YSTRAD  TYWY  :  61,  62,  67. 

Seteia  ^st,  see  Deva  fl.  :  7. 

Severn,  Sabrina,  HAFREN  :  6,  7. 

SiLURES,  SiLURiA,  SiLURiAN,  ESSYLLWG ;  the  people  occu- 
pying the  south-eastern  part  of  Wales,  and  probably  extend- 
ing over  the  counties  of  Brecknock,  Radnor,  Glamorgan, 
Monmouth,  and  Hereford:  5,  8,  9,  11,  21,  36,  51,  56,  58, 
65,  66,  71. 

Snowdon,  Eriri  Mons,  ERYRI  :  37. 

South  Wales,  South  Welsh,  the  South,  Silures  and  Demetje, 
ESSYLLWG  and  DYFED ;  sometimes  used  for  DEHEU- 
BARTH,  q.  v.:  5,  6,  7,  8,  10,  11,  30,  37,  43,  55,  56,  57, 

60,  61,  62,  63,  Qb,  67,  68,  71,  72. 
Strata  Florida :  36. 

Stucia  fl.,  Ystwyth,  or  Dyfi :  7,  74. 
Sugarloaf:  39. 

Taff,  Rhatostathybius,  Tibia  Amnis  :  7,  9. 

Tawe:  36. 

Teifi,  Tuerobis  :  7,  34,  39,  44,  74. 

Tibia  Amnis,  Cardiff  on  the  Taff;  see  Rhatostathybius:  7,  9. 

TisoBis  FL.,  see  Tossibus  :  7,  10. 

ToBius  FL.,  Tywy;  7. 

Tossibus  fl.,  Ganovius,  Tisobis,  Conwy;  9. 

Towyn ;  36. 

Traeth  Bychan ;  39. 

Traeth  Maelgwyn,  "  Maelgwyn's  strand  :"  65. 

Trawsfynydd,  Heriri  Mons  :  8. 

Trewyddel,  "Gael  town:"  36. 



Trivyn  y  Gicyddel,  "Gael  ness:"  35. 

TuEROBis  FL.,  Te'iji ;  7,  74. 

Ticll  y  Gwyddel,  "  Gael  hole  :"  36,  39. 

Tyicy,  ToBius  :  7,  20,  39. 

TYNO  COCH,  afterwards  CEREDIGION,  q.  v. :  32. 

Varis,  Bodfari;  6,  8. 

VENEDOCIA,  VENEDOCIAN,  see  GWYNEDD  :    12,  41, 

60,  64. 
Venta  Silurum,  Caertvent ;  6,  9,  12. 
Usk,  BuRRIUM,  BuLTRUM,  &c. :    74. 
Usk,  River:  6,  37. 

Waun  y  Gioyddel,  "  Gael  moor :"  36. 

Wern  y  Gicyddel,  "  Gael  alder-wood  :"  36. 

Wye,  GWY :  39. 

WYE  AND  SEVERN,  the  country  between,  seeFFERYLLWG : 

59,  70. 

Ystrad  Meyrig ;  36. 

YSTRAD  TYWI,  "  Vale  of  Tywy,"  a  division  including  a  great 

part  of  Caermarthensliire ;  61,  62,  71. 
Ystwyth,  Stuoia  (?) :  74. 

December,  1850. 



R.    MASON,    HIGH    STREET,    TENBY. 

A  Record  of  the  Antiquities  of  Wales  and  its  Marches,  and  the 
Journal  of  the  Cambrian  ArchceoloQical  Association. 
Published  Quarterly,  2s.  6d.;  yearly  volumes,  lis.,  cloth. 
Vol.  I.,  NcAv  Series,  is  now  ready,  Illustrated  by  Messrs.  Jewittand  Shaw, 
containing  : — Druidic  Stones — Rev.  John  Williams.  Similarity  of  the 
Diffcrent%elsli  Dialects— J.  James.  LlandafF  Cathedral— Very  Rev. 
W.  D.  Conybeare.  Architectural  Antiquities  of  Gower — E.  A.  Freeman. 
Manuscripts  Relating  to  Wales.  Castra  Clwydiana— W.  W.  Ffoulkes. 
Observations  on  the  'Stone  of  St.  Cadfan,  at  Towyn— J.  O.  Westwood, 
and  Rev.  John  Williams.  Remarks  on  the  Architecture  of  the  Cathedral 
Church  of  LlandafF— E.  A.  Freeman.  Sir  Hugh  Myddleton.  The 
Flemings  in  Pembrokeshire.  Letters  from  and  to  Edward  Lhwyd. 
Local  Traditions,  &c.  Anglesey.  George  Owen's  MS.  History  of  the 
County  of  Pembroke.  Influence  of  Archeology  on  Architecture — Rev. 
H.  L.  Jones.  Architectural  Features  of  the  Cathedral  Church  of  Bangor— 
Rev.  H.  L.  Jones.  Heraldry  of  the  Monument  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  at 
AVestminster  —Rev.  Joseph  Hunter.  Merionethshire— Robert  Vaughan. 
Stone  of  St.  Cadfon— Thomas  Wakeman,  Esq.  Hereford  Priories— 
J.  Davies.  Castell  Coch,  and  Caerphilly  Castle— G.  T.  Clark.  Ode 
to  the  Virgin,  with  a  Translation  by  the  Rev.  J.  Williams.  Transactions 
of  the  Cambrian  Archaeological  Association.  Correspondence.  Miscel- 
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Marches — Rev.  H.  L.  Jones.  Historical  and  Traditional  Notices  of 
Owain  Glyndwr— T.  O.  Morgan.  Beddau  Gwyr  Ardudwy— T.  W. 
Hancock.  Ancient  Camps  in  Herefordshire— J.  Davies.  Armorial 
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Or,  an  Attempt  at  a  Systematic  Examination  of  the   Camps  on  the 

Chvydian  Hills. 


Local  Sec,  Denbighshire,  for  the  "  Cambrian  Arch.  Association." 

With  eight  Illustrations  by  O.  Jewitt.     8vo.,  2s.  6d. 

ACCOUNT     OF     CWMH  I  R    ABBEY, 

Comprising: — /.  Situation  and  Historical  Particidars. — II.  Descrip- 
tion of  the  Ruinated  Building. — III.  Notices  and  Documents 
relating  to  the  Abbey. 

By  the  Rev.  W.  J.  REES,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 
Cloth  lettered,  with  Illustrations.     8vo.,  2s. 


By  the  Rev.  JOHN  WILLIAMS,  M.A.  (Ab  Ithel). 

8vo.,  stitched,  Is. 

London  :  W.  Pickering,  177,  Piccadilly.     Tenby :  R.  Mason. 


A  PASSIVE  State  of  subserviency  to  a  system  of  religious 
belief,  formed  on  the  contemplation  of  the  works  of 
Divine  Providence,  and  the  immutable  laws  of  nature,  in 
the  absence  of  revealed  truths,  would  supply  the  ground- 
work for  a  state  of  society  most  favourable  to  the  growth 
and  cultivation  of  industrious  habits,  and  peaceful  pur- 
suits; and  we  accordingly  find  that  those  institutions 
which  have  exercised  the  most  beneficial  influence  over 
the  moral  and  social  condition  of  man,  in  the  early 
stages  of  civilization,  were  of  a  character  which  united 
the  civil  and  religious  offices  in  the  administration  of 
public  affairs,  and  the  maintenance  of  order. 

The  existence  of  two  distinct  orders,  religious  and 
mihtary — as  well  European  as  Oriental — is  observable 
in  ancient  and  modern  times ;  the  former  in  the  occu- 
pation of  the  soil,  as  industrious  cultivators,  and  the 
latter  in  a  state  of  constant  excitement,  and  ever  intent 
on  oppression  and  subjugation. 

The  Teutonic  and  Belgic  portion  of  the  Celtic  race, 
having  no  druidical  system  of  discipline  to  control  and 
direct  their  natural  propensities,  and  to  substitute  the 
arts  of  peace  for  the  excitements  of  war,  paid  no  further 



attention  to  agricultural  and  commercial  occupations 
beyond  that  of  obtaining  a  bare  subsistence,  placing 
greater  reliance  on  the  sword  in  availing  themselves  of 
the  labours  of  more  industrious  tribes,  than  on  the 
ploughshare  in  cultivating  their  own  resources.  Without 
any  bonds  of  union,  or  defensive  expedients  for  the 
maintenance  of  either  public  or  private  rights,  they  are 
represented  as  abandoning  themselves  to  indolence  and 
apathy,  without  any  better  protection  against  foreign 
aggression  than  a  broad  frontier  of  marshes  {solitudines 
quam  latissimce)  to  check  and  discourage  the  ardour  of 

Gaul,  under  the  fostering  care  of  Druidism,  presents  a 
more  favourable  aspect  of  human  government.  Under 
an  order  of  priesthood  entrusted  with  the  administration 
of  justice,  the  correction  of  abuses,  and  the  maintenance 
of  religious  ordinances,  the  arts  of  peace  are  here  found 
in  a  flourishing  state,  abundance  crowning  agricultural 
and  pastoral  occupations,  and  many  of  the  most  useful 
inventions  in  an  early  state  of  development,  prior  to 
the  Roman  invasion.  Various  mechanical  arts  are  here 
found  employed  in  the  erection  and  defence  of  towns, 
and  in  the  promotion  of  manufactures;  and  all  classes 
of  society  arranged  in  the  order  of  subordination  and 
mutual  dependence. 

Gaul,  however,  was  subject  to  too  frequent  interrup- 
tions from  continental  commotions,  and  the  irruptions  of 
warlike  and  hostile  tribes,  to  become  a  permanent  field 
for  agricultural  and  commercial  enterprise.  The  earliest 
annals  or  traditions  represent  the  western  European 
tribes  as  in  a  continued  state  of  agitation  and  undulating 


movement,  each  tribe  pressed  upon  by,  and  receding 
before,  anotlier,  and  ultimately  forced  to  settle  itself  in 
the  extreme  region  of  the  west. 

To  the  insular  situation  of  Britain,  under  the  discipline 
of  Druidism,  we  may  look  for  a  more  uninterrupted 
advancement  in  the  arts  of  civilized  life,  and  the  culti- 
vation of  moral  and  religious  truths.  Protected  from 
those  disturbing  causes  which  tended  to  check  and  retard 
the  progressive  improvements  of  social  order — with  a 
climate,  soil  and  productions  the  most  favourable  to  the 
exercise  of  industry  and  settled  habits— and,  at  the  same 
time,  affording  the  strongest  inducements  for  the  adop- 
tion of  mechanical  agents  in  economising  labour,  and 
providing  against  the  rigours  of  winter— here  we  may 
still  trace,  if  not  the  origin,  at  least  the  early  application 
of  various  arts,  which  became  the  foundation  of  her 
future  fame.  Here  we  find  the  druidical  order,  in  its 
plenitude  of  power  and  usefulness,  inculcating  moral 
and  poHtical  maxims  for  the  guidance  and  advancement 
of  the  social  system — encouraging  inquiries  into  the  laws 
of  nature,  and  the  harmony  of  the  universe — training  up 
the  youthful  aspirants  for  honour  and  places  of  trust  in 
the  paths  of  science  and  the  study  of  natural  philosophy, 
and  promoting  the  interests  of  justice  and  humanity. 

That  Gaul  and  Britain  were  in  a  state  of  considerable 
advancement  as  regards  the  elements  of  science,  and  the 
progress  of  agriculture  and  commerce,  at  the  time  of  the 
Roman  invasion,  may  be  inferred  from  facts  of  authentic 
history,  notwithstanding  the  assertions  of  prejudiced 
writers,  who  represent  the  inhabitants  as  a  rude  and 
barbarous  race.     It  is  too  much  the  fashion  to  decry,  or 


to  pass  over  with  indifference,  facts  relating  to  the  inter- 
nal condition  of  Britain  prior  to  the  Anglo-Saxon  period, 
(except  during  the  period  of  her  subjection  of  Rome,)  as 
of  immaterial  importance  in  an  historical  point  of  view. 
Ecclesiastical  writers  will  hardly  admit  of  the  existence 
of  a  British  Church  before  the  mission  of  Augustine,  and 
those  who  treat  of  her  jurisprudence  are  unwilling  to 
advance  a  step  beyond  the  code  of  Alfred,  the  heptarchy 
being  considered  as  the  limit  to  such  unprofitable  re- 

From  the  history  of  the  improvements  of  manufactory, 
and  the  economy  of  labour,  as  detailed  by  Adam  Smith, 
it  would  appear  that  the  arts  connected  with  agriculture 
in  Britain  had  either  retrograded  from  what  they  were  in 
former  times,  or  that  they  never  had  any  real  existence 
till  within  a  period  of  400  years  from  the  present  time. 
His  words  are — "  Neither  wind  nor  water  mills  of  any 
description  were  known  in  England  so  early  as  the  be- 
ginning of  the  sixteenth  century,  nor,  so  far  as  I  know, 
in  any  other  part  of  Europe,  north  of  the  Alps."^ 

An  assertion  so  confidently  and  deliberately  made  by 
a  laborious  inquirer  into  the  sources  of  national  wealth, 
with  ample  materials  to  prove  such  a  fact,  if  truly  made, 
is  calculated  to  extinguish  any  attempt  at  tracing  agri- 
cultural skill  to  the  period  of  Druidism.  It  is,  however, 
an  assertion  entirely  at  variance  with  facts  of  authentic 
history  ;  and  as  the  number  of  mills  in  ancient  times 
would  form  the  best  index  to  the  state  of  agricultural 
science  and  labour,  it  becomes  a  material  object  of 
inquiry  on  the  subject  proposed. 

1  Vide  Wealth  of  Nations,  i.,  p.  11. 


Both  wind,  water  and  fulling  mills,  in  full  operation, 
may  be  traced  to  a  period  five  centuries  preceding  the 
date  of  their  introduction  according  to  the  statement  of 
this  writer.  A  mere  inspection  of  Doomsday  would  have 
been  suflicient  to  dissipate  the  views  he  entertained — a 
document  which  he  refers  to,  though  apparently  ignorant 
of  its  contents.  This  national  survey  represents  agricul- 
tural pursuits  as  engrossing  the  attention  of  the  whole 
pojDulation  of  Britain;  and  as  it  refers  to  a  previous 
document  of  the  same  kind,  as  old  as  the  reign  of  Ed- 
ward the  Confessor,  it  may  be  assumed  as  representing 
the  agricultural  state  of  Britain  during  the  Saxon  period. 
Taking  two  of  the  midland  counties  as  a  specimen  from 
Doomsday,  viz.,  the  counties  of  Wilts  and  Warwick, 
we  shall  find  that  the  former  contained  no  less  than  430 
water  mills,  yielding  about  £220  per  annum,  and  the 
latter  116,  the  rents  of  which  varied  from  two  shilhngs 
to  £5  per  annum,  and  produced  a  rental  of  £56." 

Had  the  Anglo-Saxons,  the  Danes,  or  the  Normans 
introduced  into  Britain  such  a  system  of  economising 
labour  by  the  construction  of  mills  with  water  power, 
the  early  monastic  annalists  and  historians  could  hardly 
have  failed  to  notice  such  a  discovery. 

During  the  period  of  the  fierce  struggle  for  superiority, 
in  so  rich  a  harvest  as  that  aff'orded  by  the  labours  of 
British  industry,  there  was  no  interval  of  repose  for  the 

2  The  mill  of  Barchester,  on  the  Stoiir,  yielded  100  shillings  per 
annum.  The  mill  ponds  were  also  very  productive,  from  the  sticks  of 
eels  (each  containing  twenty-five)  which  formed  a  portion  of  the  terms 
on  which  they  were  held.  They  were  also  used  in  the  manufacture 
of  salt,  producing  a  certain  number  of  semes,  or  loads,  when  the 
supply  of  the  mill  dams  was  of  a  brinish  natm-e. 


adoption  of  improvements  in  domestic  economy.  The 
same  objection  will  apply  to  the  period  intervening 
between  the  Saxon  invasion  and  the  monarchical  state 
which  succeeded  the  heptarchy.  The  continued  conflicts 
between  the  native  princes  and  their  foreign  rivals  de- 
manded all  their  energies,  to  the  exclusion  of  every  effort 
to  improve  their  respective  principalities,  and  the  ad- 
vancement of  productive  labour.  The  rural  population 
could  not  have  met  with  any  material  interruption  in 
their  field  occupations,  without  serious  inconvenience  to 
both  parties  of  belligerents,  nor  was  there  any  cessation 
of  hostilities  likely  to  convert  the  Saxon  sword  into  a 

The  Saxon  chieftains  knew  the  value  of  the  agricul- 
tural classes,  already  in  occupation  of  the  soil,  too  well 
to  carry  fire  and  sword  into  the  rural  districts,  and  by 
an  indiscriminate  slaughter  to  make  a  sacrifice  which 
could  not  be  repaired  for  centuries,  as  it  would  have  been 
impossible  to  import  from  the  continent  numbers  suffi- 
cient to  supply  their  place  ;  and  well  aware  that,  being 
released  from  their  allegiance,  the  serfs  of  the  soil  must 
of  necessity  submit  to  the  new  yoke  prepared  for  them, 
however  galling  and  oppressive. 

Accordingly  Edgar,  in  addressing  his  nobles  assembled 
in  the  year  964,  congratulates  them  on  the  success  of 
their  conquest  of  Britain  in  these  remarkable  terms : — 
"  That  we  are  in  possession  of  this  plentiful  country  is 
not  owing  to  any  strength  of  our  own,  but  to  the  help  of 
God's  all-powerful  arm,  who  has  been  pleased  to  manifest 
His  loving  kindness  to  us." 

It  is  easy  to  account  for  such  a  feehng  of  gratitude  on 


the  part  of  the  invaders,  when  they  found  themselves  in 
possession  of  the  no;ricultural  resources  of  a  country  to 
which  they  owed  their  existence  in  times  of  scarcity,  and 
which  required  no  other  labour  than  the  sword  to  secure 
to  themselves  in  perpetuity.  Britain,  during  her  occu- 
pancy by  the  Roman  legions,  was  considered  one  of  the 
western  granaries  of  the  empire,  which  supplied  the  con- 
tinental deficiencies  in  the  important  article  of  corn  and 
other  provisions.  The  Emperor  Juhan,  according  to  his 
his  own  written  testimony,  employed  no  less  than  six 
hundred  vessels  in  the  exportation  of  corn  and  flour  to 
supply  the  towns  and  fortresses  on  the  Rhine,  about  the 
middle  of  the  fourth  century. 

The  Anglo-Saxons  were  fully  aware  of  the  high  state 
of  cultivation  which  prevailed  in  Britain  ;  and  hence, 
judging  from  the  tenor  of  their  earliest  charters  in  the 
transfer  and  distribution  of  lands,  they  had  no  occasion 
for  either  admeasurement  or  surveys,  finding  the  rural 
districts  already  divided  into  farms,  regularly  arranged 
into  arable,  meadow,  pasture  and  woodland,  under  limited 
and  defined  boundaries,  and  possessing  all  the  requisites 
for  employing  the  industry  of  the  occupants.  Such  order 
in  the  arrangement  of  landed  property  required  a  much 
longer  period  for  development  than  the  time  which  inter- 
vened between  the  Saxon  invasion  and  the  date  of  these 
legal  documents  of  conveyance ;  nor  is  there  any  evi- 
dence from  which  it  may  be  inferred  that  this  flourishing 
state  of  agriculture  was  the  result  of  Roman  legislation. 
The  schools  founded  by  Agricola  about  the  close  of  the 
first  century,  were  intended  to  create  a  taste  for  the 
luxuries  and  refinements  of  society,   and  the  study  of 


rhetoric  and  grammar,  and  not  for  the  promotion  of 
scientific  knowledge,  or  the  introduction  of  a  new  system 
of  tillage  ;  and  the  porticoes  which  he  caused  to  be  erected 
in  their  cities  were  calculated  to  exhibit  ocular  proofs  of 
the  magnitude  and  extent  of  the  Roman  empire,  and  the 
splendour  of  their  public  buildings,  and  to  excite  a 
corresponding  awe  and  reverence  for  the  majesty  and 
authority  of  the  emperor. 

Implements  of  husbandry,  and  every  variety  of  wheel- 
carriages,  were  in  general  use  before  the  Roman  eagle 
visited  their  shores ;  and  the  water  mills,  by  which  their 
corn  was  ground,  must  have  created  as  much  astonish- 
ment as  the  war  chariots  which  mowed  down  the  ranks 
of  their  enemies.  It  is  a  remarkable  circumstance  that 
the  first  idea  of  a  water  mill  was  promulgated  in  Italy 
soon  after  the  return  of  Julius  Caesar,  and  when  the  in- 
ternal condition  and  resources  of  Britain  were  laid  open 
to  the  ambitious  views  of  Rome.  It  was  during  the 
reign  of  Augustus  that  the  agency  of  water  in  grinding 
corn  became  the  subject  of  speculation  in  domestic 
economy  ;  and  this  suggestion  must  have  derived  its 
origin,  not  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  Roman  empire, 
where  the  hand  mill  was  the  common  employment  of 
the  female  domestics,  or  a  mule  was  attached  to  the 
upper  stone — a  practice  which  continued  during  several 
centuries  of  the  Christian  sera — but  to  the  western  por- 
tion, where  improvements  in  handicraft  may  be  traced 
from  an  early  period,  from  well  authenticated  facts,  and 
where,  even  in  Ireland,  to  w^hich  the  Romans  never  pene- 
trated, the  water  mill  was  well  known. ^ 

3  Cogitosus,  a  native  writer  on  the  lives  of  the  Irish  Saints,  who 


Polydorc  A'^irgil,  {I)c  Rcrum  Inventorihus,  a.d.  1499,) 
in  noticing  the  superior  skill  disi)luyed  in  applying  a 
stream  of  water  in  grinding  corn,  says  that  it  was  not 
a  late  discovery,  tliough  it  had  no  name  given  it  by 
scientific  writers  who  have  treated  on  the  subject,  being 
vulgarly  called  a  molendinum,  alluding  apparently  to 
Vitruvius,  who,  in  his  work  on  Arcliitecture,  addressed 
to  Augustus,  particularly  describes  the  machinery  by 
which  it  might  be  effected,  without  mentioning  it  under 
the  name  of  a  mill.  A  Greek  writer  of  the  same  Augus- 
tine period,  Antipater  of  Thessalonica,  dressed  up  the 
same  idea  in  an  epigram  addressed  to  handmaids,  in 
which  he  compliments  them  on  a  discovery  which 
promised  to  relieve  them  from  the  toil  and  drudgery  of 
working  the  corn  mill.  He  tells  them  "  that  they  may 
at  length  enjoy  their  slumbers,  notwithstanding  the 
announcement  of  the  dawn  of  day  by  the  crowing  of  the 
cock,  inasmuch  as  Ceres  has  charged  the  water  nymphs 
with  the  labour  of  setting  the  mills  in  motion,  by 
dashing  from  the  summit  of  a  wheel,  and  making  its 
axle  revolve." 

Britain  was  noted  for  the  superabundant  fertility  of 
her  soil,  and  the  industry  of  her  population,  many  ages 
before  the  landing  of  Julius  Ceesar,  and  the  character  she 

flom-ished  as  early  as  the  year  530,  alludes  to  the  existence  of  water 
mills  in  Ireland,  erected  from  time  immemorial.  The  Rev.  John 
Williams  of  Llanymowddwy,  states,  on  the  autliority  of  a  MS. 
Chronicle  of  lolo  Morganwg,  that  wind  and  water  mills  superseded 
the  use  of  the  hand  mill  in  Wales,  a.d.  340.  Llywarch  Hen's  allu- 
sions to  gold  shields  and  spurs,  glass  goblets,  and  other  works  of 
high  art,  as  early  as  the  sixth  century,  indicate  no  inconsiderable 
advance,  as  Mr.  Williams  further  observes,  on  the  part  of  the  ancient 
Britons,  in  the  scale  of  civilization  and  refinement. 



bore  was  that  of  an  agricultural  and  trading  communit}^ 
It  was  from  hence  that  Gaul  derived  her  supplies,  which 
enabled  her  to  contend  against  the  legions  of  Rome  ;  and 
the  assistance  thus  afforded  formed  the  leading  motive 
for  the  invasion.  Her  internal  resources  could  only  be 
inferred  from  this  circumstance,  and  Caesar  was  utterly 
at  a  loss  to  ascertain  the  most  favourable  point  of  attack, 
under  the  strict  regulations  adopted  by  her  druidical 
rulers,  which  forbade  any  except  privileged  merchants 
from  approaching  her  ports  and  estuaries,  and  that  only 
under  fixed  limitations. 

It  may  be  deemed  preposterous  to  produce  evidence 
in  favour  of  this  view  of  the  state  of  Britain,  when 
under  the  control  of  Druidism,  from  the  records  of 
mythology  ;  but,  as  historical  facts  are  generally  found 
to  be  the  basis  of  fabulous  legends,  they  may  be  justly 
referred  to  in  confirmation  of  facts  derived  from  authentic 

The  flourishing  state  of  Britain  as  an  agricultural 
district  is  a  prominent  and  distinguishing  feature  in  the 
earliest  Grecian  traditions  of  a  mystic  character,  in  which 
such  allusions  may  be  traced. 

Hecataeus,  an  ancient  writer  quoted  by  Diodorus 
Siculus,  represents  the  island  as  highly  favoured  by 
Apollo,  and  so  fertile  as  to  produce  two  crops  of  corn 
annually;  under  which  type  we  may  discern  the  pre- 
vailing influence  of  bardism,  as  a  branch  of  the  druidic 
system  ;  and  the  author  of  the  Argonautic  poem  de- 
scribes Britain  as  being,  in  a  more  especial  manner,  the 
residence  of  Queen  Ceres,  from  the  abundance  and 
fertility  of  the  soil. 


Strabo  quotes  the  authority  of  an  ancient  Greek 
geographer  in  stating  that  the  mysteries  of  Ceres  and 
Proserpine  were  practised  in  some  of  the  British  Isles, 
after  the  manner  of  the  Cabiri  in  Samo-thrace,  by  which 
we  are  to  understand  that  the  fecundity  of  nature  in 
the  production  of  the  fruits  of  the  earth  was  celebrated 
in  their  religious  ceremonies ;  and  that  the  Eleusinian 
mysteries,  which  the  wisest  of  the  heathen  philosophers 
pronounced  to  be  one  of  the  greatest  blessings  conferred 
on  mankind,  were  in  some  degree  identical  with  the 
tenets  and  practices  of  Druidism. 

The  historical  records  and  traditions  which  may  be 
assumed  as  having  been  handed  down  from  the  druidical 
period,  and  which  are  found  to  harmonise  with  the  types 
and  allusions  conveyed  through  the  dark  medium  of 
mythology,  afford  the  strongest  presumption  that  the 
cultivation  of  the  soil  was  one  of  the  principal  objects 
of  encouragement  under  the  sway  of  the  Druids,  and 
that  agriculture,  and  the  arts  in  connexion  with  it,  must 
have  attained  a  considerable  degree  of  advancement  under 
the  operation  of  laws  which,  in  the  mystic  language  of 
the  age,  may  justly  be  ascribed  to  the  sovereignty  of 

The  historical  and  mythological  character  of  Hu 
Gadarn,  whom  the  Triads  represent  as  retiring  from  the 
turmoils  of  continental  disturbances,  and  seeking  in  Gaul 
and  Britain  for  a  less  exposed  region  for  cultivating  the 
arts  of  peace  and  industry,  seems  to  embody  the  early 
efforts  of  agricultural  science  and  skill  in  promoting  the 
ends  of  humanity.     To  him  is  ascribed  the  origin  of  that 


social  system  which  combined  the  influence  of  religion 
with  the  cultivation  of  the  soil,  and  led  to  the  establish- 
ment of  the  various  orders  of  Druidism,  with  duties  and 
ofiices  assigned  and  limited  to  each. 

During  a  subsequent  period  of  the  druidical  aera, 
though  at  an  interval  not  easily  defined,  the  Moelmu- 
tian  code  of  legislation  (or  that  of  Dyfnwal  Moelmud) 
appears  in  operation,  in  giving  increased  security  and 
efficacy  to  field  labours.  The  cultivators  of  the  soil 
enjoyed  especial  protection  under  laws  which  extended 
the  privileges  of  sanctuary  to  the  plough  and  the  high- 
ways ;  which  forbade  that  any  implements  of  husbandry 
should  be  seized  in  satisfaction  for  debts,  or  that  any 
diminution  in  the  number  of  ploughs  should  take  place 
in  any  district,  under  any  circumstances ;  and  which 
enacted  that  all  proceedings  of  a  judicial  nature  should 
be  suspended  during  the  seasons  of  sowing  and  har- 

In  order  to  give  due  effect  to  such  a  system  of  legis- 
lation for  the  promotion  of  agricultural  industry,  it  may 
be  presumed  that  the  whole  island  had  been  parcelled 
out  and  divided  on  some  uniform  scale,  and  that  can- 
treds,  commots,  villas  and  tenements  had  been  formed 
in  regular  order,  before  such  laws  could  be  enforced  ;  and 
that  there  were  national  surveys  of  high  antiquity,  for 
the  security  of  individual  rights,  and  the  adjustment 
of  public  burdens.  Accordingly,  we  find  that  these 
divisions  and  subdivisions  of  land  existed  from  time 
immemorial,  on  the  model  of  ancient  Etruria,  and  that 
tlie  terms  by  which  they  are  designated  belong  to  a 
period  beyond  the  reach  of  any  European  annals. 

UNDER   THE    DRUII^ICaI,  "SYfefEAi;  ;  •'"  |  •.;  J  .vlOl 

Commerce  and  handicraft  must  of  necessity  have 
received  a  great  impulse  from  such  a  state  of  agricultural 
activity  and  of  domestic  economy.  The  surplus  pro- 
ductions of  the  soil  would  soon  become  a  chief  article 
for  exportation,  in  exchange  for  other  commodities  with 
the  continental  tribes,  whose  incentives  to  industry  must 
have  been  checked  by  the  inroads  of  warlike  nations,  and 
whose  population,  in  consequence,  must  have  exceeded 
the  means  of  subsistence.  No  doubt  can  exist  but  that  the 
commercial  state  of  Britain  had  attained  a  considerable 
degree  of  eminence  before  the  Roman  standard  was 
planted  on  her  soil,  and  that  there  were  numerous  cities'* 
and  towns  in  the  interior,  and  on  the  banks  of  the  prin- 
cipal rivers,  busily  engaged  in  the  various  transactions 
and  trades  necessary  for  a  community  in  which  the 
mechanical  arts  were  in  a  flourishing  state  of  improve- 
ment.^    A  nation  which  could  exhibit  such  proofs  of 

■*  Vespasian  acquired  no  small  renown  in  having  brought  twenty 
toMTis  to  subjection  on  the  banks  of  the  Avon  and  the  Thames,  as  early 
as  A.D.  45.  London  soon  afterwards  appears  on  the  pages  of  history, 
within  a  lapse  of  time  insufficient  for  erecting  a  city  of  such  mag- 
nitude and  importance,  and  to  the  astonishment  of  Rome.  The 
profound  mystery  which  overhung  the  domestic  and  poHtical  state 
of  Britain  under  the  government  of  the  Druids  was  soon  dissipated, 
and  the  reality  was  found  perfectly  at  variance  with  the  rumours  in 

^  Cicero,  in  the  private  correspondence  he  held  with  his  friends 
who  accompanied  Caesar  in  his  expedition,  appeai-s  to  have  entertained 
no  hopes  of  success,  inasmuch  as  the  approaches  to  the  harbours  were 
fortified  by  enormous  piers  of  stone  work,  (mirijicis  vioUhus,)  and 
that  which  was  a  subject  of  doubt  before,  was  now  well  known,  viz., 
that  there  was  not  a  scruple  of  silver  in  the  whole  island,  or  any  pro- 
spect of  spoil,  except  slaves,  of  whom  not  many  could  be  found 
learned,  or  skilled  in  music.  He  alludes  to  a  letter  received  from 
Caesar,  and  dated  in  November,  on  the  British  shore,  which  admits 


skill  in  the  adaptation  of  the  wheel  and  axle  to  carriages 
of  various  descriptions,  as  to  excite  the  astonishment  of 
the  Romans,  could  not  fail  in  availing  themselves  of 
similar  expedients  in  facilitating  agricultural  labours, 
and  improving  their  implements  of  husbandry  ;  nor  can 
we  account  for  the  adoption  at  Rome  of  the  Celtic  terms, 
essedum,  rheda,  conbenna,  petoritum,  &c.,  for  the  pri- 
vate and  domestic  vehicles  then  in  use,  except  upon  the 
assumption  that  the  Britons  and  Gauls  possessed  and 
exercised  superior  skill  in  the  fashion  and  construction  of 

Under  the  guidance  of  a  religious  order  endowed 
with  great  privileges  and  authority,  who  made  the  prin- 
ciples of  natural  philosophy  and  the  laws  of  motion  their 
chief  study,  and  where  tillage  was  an  object  of  national 
care  and  encouragement,  nothing  could  be  more  natural 

the  intended  abandonment  of  the  expedition,  on  the  score  that  there 
were  no  spoils  to  reward  the  enterprise ;  and  yet  an  attempt  was  made 
to  impose  a  tribute  on  an  island  where  neither  gold  nor  silver  was  to 
be  found.  He  moreover  advises  his  friend  Trebatius  to  avoid  an 
encounter  with  the  British  armed  charioteer,  and  to  hasten  his  return 
from  Britain  by  the  first  essedum  he  could  meet  with. — Lit.  Fam., 
vii.,  &c. 

6  The  British  word  men  (from  whence  yd-fen,  cywain,  &c.)  is  the 
etymon  of  many  terms  for  wheel-carriages.  The  carrus,  for  the  con- 
veyance of  miUtary  stores,  is  considered  British  by  Caesar.  It  is 
remarkable  that  the  word  rhod  is  not  simply  the  Latin  rota,  but  like 
the  Sanscrit  rotha,  implies  both  wheel  and  axle.  The  Britons  were 
noted  not  only  for  wheel-carriages,  but  also  for  the  breed  and  manage- 
ment of  horses ;  and  while  the  Romans  borrowed  from  other  nations 
their  terms  for  horse  trappings,  the  Britons  had  terms  of  their  own, 
as  the  aw  en  or  habena,  the  cebystr  or  capistrum,  ystroden,  genfa, 
ffrwyn,  &c.;  and  their  harnais,  a  genuine  British  word,  was  elabo- 
rately formed  and  figured,  as  we  are  informed  by  the  poet  Propertius, 
a  conteniporary  of  Caesar. 


than  the  adoption  of  some  mechanical  expedient  for 
working  the  mill,  nor  could  any  one  occur  sooner  tlian 
the  agency  of  a  water  course,  through  the  medium  of  the 
wheel  and  axle.  The  breuan,  or  ancient  British  mill,  is 
always  referred  to  as  a  machine  for  grinding  corn,  set 
in  motion  by  the  application  of  some  external  force,  and 
not  by  manual  labour,^  One  appendage  to  it,  called 
"cliccied  y  Avysgi,"  has  been  the  subject  of  much  specu- 
lation, many  supposing  that  the  moving  power  must 
have  been  a  magnet.  The  term,  however,  clearly  shows 
that  nothing  more  was  meant  than  a  mill  race,  the 
cliccied  being  a  bar  to  check  or  regulate  motion,  and 
gwysg,  or  gwysgi,  as  defined  by  Dr.  0.  Pugh,  implying 
the  rush  of  water  to  find  its  level.  The  simple  expedient 
of  applying  the  cog  wheel  to  the  British  rhod  would 
speedily  lead  to  the  invention  and  use  of  the  water 
wheel.  The  British  Triads  afford  direct  testimony  in 
confirming  the  probability  that  the  original  construction 
of  water  mills  was  peculiar  to  Britain,  and  the  result  of 
British  ingenuity ;  and  that  it  was  from  hence  that 
Vitruvius  derived  the  idea,  on  which  he  established  his 
theory  (without  however  putting  it  into  practice)  of  a 
water  wheel  for  grinding  corn.  One  of  these  Triads 
enumerates  the  names  of  persons  of  the  bardic  or 
druidical  profession  eminent  for  their  skill  in  handicraft, 

7  The  British  proverbs  which  refer  to  it  always  represent  it  as 
having  some  moving  mechanical  power,  as  "  tra  'r  rhetto  'r  6g,  rhed  y 
freuan,"  "  cyrch  y  ci  ar  y  freuan."  The  term  "  breuan  Uif/'  which 
occurs  in  the  Welsh  Laws,  may  imply  either  a  grindstone,  according 
to  Dr.  Pugh,  or  a  mill  race.  The  mill  cog,  by  which  this  effect  is 
produced,  shows  a  British  origin — cog  implying  the  small  billet  of 
wood  adopted  for  dentification. 


of  whom  Coel  ap  Cyllin  is  said  to  have  been  the  first 
who  applied  the  principle  of  the  wheel  and  axle  to  the 
working  of  the  corn  mill.  From  the  same  Triad  we 
learn  that  Corfinwr  introduced  the  use  of  the  sail  and 
rudder,  and  Morddal  the  art  of  using  cement  in  masonry, 
or,  at  least,  some  improvements  in  their  respective  pro- 
fessions. Whatever  authority  may  be  allowed  to  these 
historical  records,  which  bear  the  impress  of  Druidism, 
or  to  whatever  period  before  the  Roman  invasion  they 
refer,  there  can  be  no  doubt  but  that  the  Britons  in 
early  times  had  distinguished  themselves  by  their  skill  in 
ship-building,  and  in  the  erection  of  stone  edifices,  and 
that  those  terms  which  designate  mechanical  appliances, 
implements  of  husbandry,  domestic  utensils,  &;c.,  and 
which  bear  a  strong  resemblance  to  those  of  Etrurian 
origin,  were  peculiar  to  Britain,  before  she  became  a 
Roman  province.  It  must  also  be  admitted  that  what- 
ever advancement  in  art,  whether  as  regards  the  anvil, 
the  loom,  or  the  saw,  may  be  traced  among  the  Gauls, 
would  apply  equally  to  Britain,  as  the  undisturbed  seat 
of  discipline  and  study,  from  whence  scientific  discoveries 
might  be  expected  to  emanate. 

It  is  no  less  remarkable  than  true  that  most  of  the 
useful  arts  which  sprung  from  agricultural  industry  are 
classed  under  the  patronage  of  deified  personages  of  a 
far  distant  age ;  and  that  most  inquiries  into  their  origin 
terminate  in  the  dark  regions  of  mythology.  It  is  also 
generally  admitted  that  the  Celtic  and  Grecian  mytho- 
logy had  a  common  origin,  and  that  the  same  attributes 
are  ascribed  to  the  heathen  deities  in  western  Europe  as 
in    Greece.     Mercury  and  Minerva,  as  the  patrons   of 


commerce  and  scientific  inventions,  were  more  especially 
objects  of  veneration  and  regard  among  the  western 
tribes,  and  there  is  no  language  in  which  their  names 
admit  of  a  better  solution  than  that  of  the  Celtic.  Hence 
commerce  and  manufactures  were  leading  objects  in  their 
system  of  political  economy.  The  Britons  had  not  only 
their  vessels  for  the  export  and  import  of  merchandise, 
but  also  an  armed  navy  for  protecting  their  trade,  and 
for  keeping  the  other  maritime  states  in  subjection.  If 
the  former  were  composed  of  oziers,  and  covered  with 
hides,  the  latter  were  built  of  oak  boards,  with  iron  bolts, 
and  furnished  with  chain  cables. 

Pliny,  whose  predilections  induced  him  to  attribute 
most  of  the  inventions  connected  with  agriculture  to 
Egypt,  maintains  that  the  cultivation  of  flax  first  took 
place  in  that  country,  upon  which  he  remarks — how 
extraordinary  it  was  that  so  slender  and  insignificant  a 
plant  should  possess  the  power  of  uniting  the  oriental 
and  western  nations  in  bonds  of  mutual  dependance 
on  Italy.  It  was  not  employed,  however,  for  the 
purpose  of  navigation  till  long  after  the  heroic  ages, 
for  Homer  describes  the  sails  which  impelled  the 
Greek  navy  to  the  plains  of  Troy  as  little  better  than 
a  kind  of  matting,  formed  of  sedge,  if  not  of  coarser 
material.  The  druidical  order,  like  the  priesthood  of 
Egypt,  was  distinguished  by  the  wearing  of  linen 
robes,  from  which  we  can  safely  infer  that  flax  and 
hemp  were  articles  of  cultivation  in  Britain  at  the 
earliest  period  ;  and  that  they  were  employed  by  the 
western  maritime  states  in  the  art  of  sailing,  may  be 
further  inferred  from  the  substitution  of  leather,   as  a 


material  better  suited  for  the   boisterous  gales  of  the 

The  terms  belonging  to  the  art  and  implements  of 
weaving,  and  the  peculiar  form  of  the  shuttle,  as  dis- 
tin2:uished  from  the  radius  of  the  Greeks  and  oriental 
nations,  are  proofs  of  originality  in  the  construction  and 
use  of  the  loom.^ 

The  invigorating  climate  of  Britain  would  be  more 
favourable  to  the  inventive  faculties,  under  the  guidance 
of  a  philosophical  priesthood,  than  that  of  hotter  and 
more  enervating  regions ;  and  the  manufacture  of  linen 
and  woollen  fabrics  must  have  occupied  the  attention  of 
the  Druids  from  their  earliest  settlement  in  western 
Europe,  and  kept  pace  with  the  progressive  stages  of 
agricultural  advancement  and  of  productive  labour. 
The  laina  was  a  Gauhsh  term  for  a  woollen  cassock  of 
native  manufacture,  the  weaving  of  which  occupied  great 
numbers  of  the  population. — {Vide  Plautus.) 

The  gauna  was  another  species  of  coarse  covering  of 
wool  peculiar  to  them,  according  to  Varro  ;  while  the 
bardo-cucullus,  or  purple  mantle  of  the  bardic  costume, 
affords  another  specimen  of  early  manufacture. 

After  the  Romans  had  succeeded  in  wresting  the 
government  of  Britain  from  druidical  sway,  and  in 
appropriating   her  resources  to    the   imperial   treasury, 

8  The  small  rounded  and  hollow  grit-stones,  which  are  found  in 
great  abundance  among  the  remains  of  the  ancient  circular  habita- 
tions, were  not  intended  for  grinding  corn,  but  for  dressing  flax  and 
hemp,  and  worked  by  the  hand.  Hence  the  term  "  breunaru  lUn  a 

9  The  shuttle  appears  to  be  a  corruption  from  esgudull,  the  diminu- 
tive of  esgud,  a  shoe,  which  it  resembles — Greek,  skyteus. 


Venta  Belgarum  became  the  emporium  for  supplying 
the  imjierial  wardrobe  and  the  army  clothing ;  and  sucli 
was  tlie  importance  attached  to  the  skill  employed  in  the 
manufacture  of  sails,  linen,  counterpanes,  &c.,  that  the 
looms  of  the  district  were  placed  under  the  superinten- 
dence of  an  officer  specially  appointed  for  the  purpose. 
Abundant  evidence  may  be  brought  in  proof  that  the  art 
of  dyeing,  and  of  extracting  various  colours  from  plants 
and  minerals,  was  well  known  to  the  inhabitants  of 
western  Europe,  and  practised,  not  in  painting  their 
bodies,  but  in  the  manufacture  of  clothing,  a  party- 
coloured  vest  being  a  peculiar  costume  which  distin- 
guished one  of  the  largest  provinces  into  which  Gaul  was 
divided.  From  the  term  glastennen,  as  applied  to  the 
holm,  or  scarlet  oak,  it  may  reasonably  be  conjectured 
not  only  that  the  bark  was  used  in  the  process  of  making 
leather,  but  that  the  oak-dust  and  apple  were  also  used 
as  articles  for  dyeing,  and  that  this  was  the  colouring 
material  to  which  Caesar  applies  the  term  glastum.  To 
the  practice  of  dyeing  may  be  added  the  fulling,  or  pan- 
ning, process,  as  equally  well  known.  The  Greeks  claim 
the  invention  on  the  part  of  Nicias  of  Megara,  a  philoso- 
pher of  the  Socratic  school ;  but  the  pretensions  of  the 
Gauls  rest  on  better  grounds,  as  it  is  asserted  by  Pliny 
that  the  manufacture  of  soap,  the  most  material  article 
in  the  fulling  process,  had  its  origin  in  Gaul.  The  same 
observation  will  apply  to  the  kneading  trough,  or  the  art 
of  making  bread.  The  invention  of  the  bolting  sieve, 
composed  of  horse  hair,  for  purifying  flour,  or  separating 
the  sil  from  the  husk,  is  attributed  by  Pliny  to  the 
Gauls ;  and  the  substitution  of  bread  for  gruel  did  not 


take  place  at  Rome  till  after  the  annexation  of  Gallia 
Narbonensis  to  her  territorial  possessions,  or  about  150 
j^ears  before  the  invasion  of  Julius  Ceesar/  The  popina 
leads  us  to  the  brewery ;  and  here  we  have  ample  autho- 
rity for  stating  that  the  process  of  making  a  fermented 
liquor  from  barley  formed  a  characteristic  feature  in  the 
domestic  economy  of  the  Celtic  tribes,"  and  that  the  Ger- 
mans are  entitled  to  the  credit  of  adding  a  due  proportion 
of  the  lupulus,  or  hop  plant,  to  improve  its  flavour. 

That  the  Britons  adopted  artificial  means  for  increasing 
the  fertility  of  the  soil,  and  that  the  art  of  manuring  land 
was  in  a  considerable  state  of  advancement  before  the 
Roman  invasion,  may  be  inferred  from  the  agricultural 
terms  of  native  origin  in  which  the  language  abounds. 
Marl,  or  mwrl,  so  called  from  its  friability,  was  one  of  the 
materials  used  by  them,  according  to  the  testimony  of 
Pliny.     The  use  of  lime  as  a  cement  shows  that  the 

1  The  British  sU  takes  precedence  of  the  Latin  sihgo.  The  Roman 
etymologist  is  much  puzzled  as  to  the  etymon  of  popina,  which  the 
British  pobi  Avould  have  explained.  The  British  tylino,  to  knead, 
bears  some  analogy  to  telia,  the  Greek  term  for  the  kneading  trough, 
or  rather  perhaps  to  telinon,  the  farina  of  the  red-bearded  wheat, 
called  hrana,  formerly  cultivated  in  Gaul,  and  no  longer  known  to 

2  Welsh  ale  was  highly  valued  and  in  great  demand  during  the 
Saxon  heptarchy.  The  Saxon  Chronicle,  a.d.  852,  records  the  grant 
of  the  villa  of  Sleaford,  in  Lincoln,  for  supplying  the  monastery  of 
Peterborough  with  ten  mittans  of  Welsh  ale,  or  ten  sextaries  or  quarts, 
as  it  is  translated,  a  quantity  very  disproportioned  to  so  large  and  pro- 
ductive a  parish.  Mittan,  however,  is  derived  from  myd,  or  mydd 
and  myddi,  a  capacious  wooden  vessel  of  a  circular  form,  more  of  the 
nature  of  a  vat  or  hogshead,  and  peculiar  to  the  Britons.  The  western 
nations  had  their  casks,  when  the  Greeks  used  skins  for  their  fermented 
liquors  ;  though  Pseusippus,  a  Grecian,  is  said  to  have  been  the  first 


process  of  calcination  was  well  known,  and  applied  to  a 
variety  of  ])iirposcs.  The  manufacture  of  salt,  and  the 
fusion  of  metals,  both  as  sources  of  revenue  and  articles 
of  commerce,  may  easily  be  traced  to  the  druidical 
period ;  while  gold  ornaments,  as  articles  of  costume  for 
the  neck  and  arms,^  were  in  high  estimation  among  the 
Celts  at  a  remote  period.  The  great  abundance  of  tri- 
coloured  beads  found  in  Britain  cannot  well  be  accounted 
for,  except  upon  the  supposition  that  the  art  of  manufac- 
turins:  them  was  known  to  the  Druids.  The  use  of  the 
blow-pipe  by  which  they  were  formed,  and  its  resem- 
blance to  a  serpent,  has  led  to  an  extraordinary  delusion 
on  the  subject  of  their  production.  Pliny  was  so  far 
imposed  upon,  in  having  the  process  described  to  him 
as  practised  in  Gaul,  as  to  assert  that  they  were  produced 
by  the  blowing  of  snakes.  Glain  natron,  or  glass  beads, 
formed  by  the  fusion  of  sand  and  natron,  (the  usual 
ingredients,)  by  means  of  the  blow-pipe,  agrees  so  nearly 
in  sound  with  glain  nadron,  or  snake  beads,  as  to  justify 
the  only  reasonable  solution  of  such  an  extraordinary 
phenomenon  as  that  of  the  production  of  beads  by  the 
hissing  of  snakes,  as  attested  by  the  Roman  naturalist. 

The  ingenuity  displayed  by  the  Celts  in  their  modes 
of  warfare,  which  enabled  them  at  various  periods  to 
overrun  Europe,  and  to  extend  their  conquests  into  Asia 
Minor,  in  which  expeditions  we  have  reason  to  infer 
that  Britain  had  no  inconsiderable  share,  proves  at  least 
that  they  were  on  a  par  with  some  of  the  most  celebrated 
nations  of  antiquity.     In  their  adoption  of  inflammable 

3  The  Latins  borrowed  the  term  monile,  for  a  necklace,  from  the 
Celtic  mwnwg-dlws,  or  ornament  for  the  mwnwg,  or  neck. 


balls  for  setting  fire  to  the  enemy's  entrenchments,  and 
in  the  application  of  moveable  iron  shields  for  subter- 
ranean operations  in  undermining  their  outworks,  as 
described  by  Caesar,  we  may  discern  a  gradual  approach 
to  the  destructive  elements  of  modern  warfare  ;  while  the 
invention  of  the  rudder,  (Greek,  pvrrip,  habena,)  and  the 
double  pronged  anchor,  by  the  early  navigators  of  the 
Western  or  Hyperborean  Sea,  and  introduced  from  thence 
into  Greece  by  Anacharsis,  above  five  centuries  before 
the  Christian  sera,  present  historical  facts  of  equal  impor- 
tance to  those  already  enumerated ;  all  of  them  tending 
to  confirm  the  doubt  entertained  by  Aristotle,  whether 
to  ascribe  the  origin  and  progress  of  the  useful  arts  and 
sciences  to  the  sages  of  western  Europe,  or  to  the  light 
of  oriental  philosophy. 







REV.  J.  WILLIAMS,  M.A.,  (ab  Ithel,) 


A    OLOSSARY,    &c. 


AcHEN — A  coat  of  arms.  It  has  a  particular  reference 
to  the  lineage  of  the  bearer. 

"  The  long-mane  dragon's  achen  we  view, 
And  see  the  brightening  silver  hue." 

lolo  Goch,  1370-1420,  relative 
to  the  arms  of  Mortimer. 

AcHRE — A  raiment  peculiar,  as  it  would  appear  from 
the  etymology  of  the  word,  to  a  person  of  gentle  birth. 

AcHRis — This  seems  to  be  a  similar  description  of  cover- 

Adfach — The  beard  of  a  dart,  or  hook. 

Adoew,  called  also  Gotoew — a  spur.  Llywarch  Hen, 
in  the  sixth  century,  speaking  of  the  battle  of  Llong- 
borth,  in  which  Geraint  ab  Erbin  was  slain,  says  that 
he  saw  there  the  "  quick-impelling  gotoew  ;"  and  he 
relates  of  one  of  his  own  sons  that  he  wore  "  the  golden 
gotoew''  lolo  Goch  describes  Mortimer  as  having 
"golden  gotoew r  and  0.  ab  LI.  Moel,  1430-1460, 
compliments  some  one  by  saying  that  he  "  ought  to 
have  golden  gotoew." 

Aerbar — The  spear  of  slaughter. 


114  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

Aerwy — A  collar  or  chain.     In  ancient  times  it  was  a 
badge  of  distinction,  worn  by  warriors. 

"  A  golden  aerwy  will  be  sent  to  some  slaughter, 
On  his  goodly  neck,  bright  and  fresh." 

G.  ah  leuan  Hen,  a.d.  1460. 

In  the  institution  of  the  Round  Table,  established  by 
Rhys  ab  Tewdwr  in  the  eleventh  century,  the  ribbon, 
which  the  bards  wore  on  their  arm,  just  below  the 
shoulder  joint,  indicative  of  their  several  degrees,  was 
designated  aerwy  and  also  amrwy.  The  armlet  of  the 
Druid-bard  was  white;  that  of  the  Privileged-bard 
sky-blue;  and  that  of  the  Ovate  green;  whilst  the 
aspirant  or  disciple  wore  one  which  exhibited  a  com- 
bination of  these  three  colours.  When  the  bards  had 
abandoned  the  general  use  of  their  official  robes,  the 
aerwy  was  "  considered  of  equal  value,  and  represen- 
ting the  same  honour  with  the  entire  dress." — {lolo 
MSS.,  p.  633.) 
Aes — A  buckler  or  target,  carried  in  the  left  hand,  or  on 
the  left  arm,  which  were  hence  denominated,  respec- 
tively, "  Haw  aswy,"  and  "  braich  aswy,"  i,  e.,  the 
shield  hand  or  arm.  The  heroes  of  the  Gododin  are 
represented  by  Aneurin  as  "  armed  with  the  aes." 
From  that  poem  we  also  learn  that  the  aes  was  some- 
times made  of  wood  : — 

"  When  Cydywal  hastened  to  battle,  he  raised  the  shout, 
With  the  early  dawn  he  dealt  out  tribulation, 
And  left  the  splintered  aesawr  scattered  about." 

The  original  is  "  aesawr  dellt."  It  is  not  quite  clear 
whether  the  expression  refers  to  the  formation  of  the 
aes  as  being  composed  of  laths,  or  merely  to  its  shat- 


tered  condition ;  neither  view,  however,  would  militate 
against  the  fact  of  its  material  being*  wood.  But  we 
find  that  it  was  also  made  of  steel.  Thus  Prydydd  y 
Moch,  1160-1220,  says  of  Gruffydd  ab  Cynan  that 

"  He  formed  the  sudden  conflict  in  the  protection  of  an 
aes  of  steel." 

Nor  was  it  always  light;  for  the  Prydydd  Bychan, 
1210-1260,  speaks  of  Meredydd  ab  Owain  as  armed 

"  A  broken,  red,  heavy  aes" 

The  aes  was  doubtless  the  same  with  the  aspis,  which 
both  Herodian  and  Dion  Cassius  represent  as  being 
used  by  the  Britons. 
Albrys — The  catapulta,  or  the  cross-bow. 

"  Send  through  him  from  the  alhrys  another  wound." 

Dafydd  ah  Gwihjm,  1330-1370. 

In  the  Armorican  dialect  this  instrument  is  similarly 
called  "albalastr;"  and  as  there  was  no  extensive 
intercourse  between  the  Welsh  and  Bretons  subse- 
quently to  the  sixth  century,  we  may  fairly  date 
words,  this  among  others,  which  are  common  to  the 
languages  of  both  people,  at  least  as  early  as  that  era. 

Alfarch — A  spear. 

Amadrwy — A  purfle  about  a  woman's  gown  ;  the  train 
or  trail  of  a  gown. 

Amaerwy — A  hem,  a  skirt,  a  border,  welt  or  guard 
about  a  coat  or  gown,  a  fringe  of  a  garment,  a  sel- 
vedge. Taliesin,  in  the  sixth  century,  speaks  of  a 
"  silver  amaerwy.^' 

Ambais — A  safeguard  ;  a  kind  of  woman's  riding  dress. 

116  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

Amdawd — Raiment. 

"  He  was  the  stately  Owain,  sure  pledge  of  baptism, 
Wearing  an  amdawd  of  cerulean  hue." 

Gwalchmai,  1150-1190. 

Amde — A  covering.     It  seems  to  have  been  a  mark  of 
honour  ;  for  Taliesin  thus  alludes  to  it : — 
"  He  that  knows  the  ingenious  art 
Which  is  hid  by  the  discreet  ovate, 
Will  give  me  an  amde, 
When  he  ascends  from  the  gate." 
And  elsewhere  he  represents  the  prince  of  Rheged  as 
"  The  chief  of  men,  and  the  amde  of  warriors." 
Amdo — A  covering  on  all  sides.     It  commonly  signifies 

a  shroud  or  winding-sheet. 
Amdorch — An  encircling  wreath. 
Amdrws — A  garment  that  covers  all  round,  from  "trws," 

a  trouse. 
Amglwm — A  clasper. 
Amlaw — A  glove. 

"  A  steel  amlaw  round  the  shaft  of  his  dart." 

Ltwis  Mon,  1480-1520. 

Amorchudd — A  cover  on  all  sides. 
Amrwym — A  bandage. 
Amwe — A  selvedge,  or  skirting. 

Amwisg — A  covering  ;  it  commonly  signifies  a  shroud. 
"  The  gallant  chief,  not  unconspicuous 
Was  his  steel  amwisg,  among  the  brave." 

D.  ah  Edmund,  a.d.  1450. 

Archen — A  shoe. 

"  In  the  month  of  December  dirty  is  the  archen, 
Heavy  is  the  ground — the  sun  seems  drowsy." 

Aneurin,  510-560. 


Archenad — The  same  as  the  preceding. 
"  In  the  month  of  May, 
Merry  is  the  old  man  without  archenad." 


From  this  extract  it  appears  that  our  ancestors  occa- 
sionally, in  the  summer  at  least,  went  about  without 
shoes.  In  the  Laws  of  Hywel  Dda,  it  is  decreed  that 
the  chamber-maid  of  the  palace  should  have,  amongst 
other  things,  the  queen's  old  archenad.  The  same 
laws  provide,  moreover,  that  the  watchman  and  the 
woodman  should  be  supplied  respectively  with  arch- 
enad at  the  king's  expense.  Kilhwch,  one  of  the 
heroes  of  the  Mabinogion,  is  described  as  having 
"  precious  gold,  of  the  value  of  three  hundred  kine, 
upon  his  archenad,  and  upon  his  stirrups,  from  his 
knee  to  the  tip  of  his  toe." 

Archre — Raiment ;  clothes. 

Archro — Clothes ;  dress. 

Arf — A  weapon. 

"There  are  three  lawful  arfau:  a  sword,  a  spear,  and  a 
bow  with  tw^elve  arrows  in  a  quiver.  And  every  man  of  family 
is  required  to  have  them  ready,  with  a  view  to  withstand  any 
invasion  w^hich  may  be  caused  by  the  forces  of  the  border 
country,  or  of  aliens,  and  other  depredators.  And  arfau  are 
not  to  be  allowed  to  any  one  who  is  not  a  native  Cymro,  or 
an  alien  in  the  third  degree,  for  the  purpose  of  preventing 
treason  and  waylaying. — Laws  of  Dyfnwal  Moelmud,  b.c.  430. 

Arfeilyn — Sashoons,  a  kind  of  leather  bandages  for 
the  small  of  the  leg,  used  for  preserving  boots  from 

Arfwll — The  name  of  the  sword  of  Trystan,  a  chieftain 
of  the  sixth  century. 

118  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

Arglwyddwialen — A  rod  of  dominion ;  a  sceptre.  Hence 
a  feme  covert  is  said  in  the  Welsh  Laws  to  be  under 
a  "  matrimonial  arglwyddwialen.'" 

Arlen — A  covering  veil. 

Arlost — The  stock  or  shaft  of  a  weapon ;  the  butt  end. 

"  The  knight  passed  the  arlost  of  his  lance  through  the  bridle 
rein  of  my  horse." — Lady  of  the  Fountain,  p.  49. 

Arolo — A  covering,  or  a  shroud. 

"  I  also  hastened  with  arolooedd  (shroiids)  for  the  Angles  ; 
Lamentations  were  in  Lloegria  along  the  path  of  my  hand." 

Gwalchmai,  1150-1190. 

Arwisg — Upper  garment. 

Arwydd — An  ensign,  banner,  or  colours ;  a  tabard ; 
Arm.  "  Argoedd."  Hywel  Foel,  1240-1280,  describes 
Owain  Goch's  colours  as  of  fine  linen,  "  bliant  arwydd- 
ion."  In  the  "  Dream  of  Rhonabwy"  we  read  of 
a  troop  of  men  having  "  arwyddion  (hanners)  which 
were  pure  white  with  black  points."  And  in  "  The 
Lady  of  the  Fountain,"  a  knight  is  introduced  with  an 
"arwydd  (a  tabard)  of  black  linen  about  him." 

Arwylwisg — Mourning  dress. 

AsAFAR — A  shield,  or  buckler.  "  There  were  asafeiriaid 
(shield  bearers)  and  infantry  innumerable." — H.  Car. 
Mag. — Mabinogion. 

As  ANT — A  shield. 

AsETH — A  kind  of  small  darting  spear. 

Attrws — A  second  dress,  or  garment. 

Attudd — A  second  cover,  or  casing. 



Balawg — Tlie  tongue  of  a  buckle  ;  a  fibula ;  the  flap  of 
the  breeches;  an  apron.  In  the  "  Mabinogi"  of  H. 
Peredur  we  read  of  "  a  knight  bearing  the  armorial 
badge  of  a  halaivg  (a  fibula)."  Likewise,  in  the 
"  Dream  of  Rhonabwy,"  a  knight  is  described  as 
having  on  his  belt  "  a  clasp  of  ivory,  with  a  balawg  of 
jet  black  upon  the  clasp  ;"  another,  as  having  "  a  jet 
black  balawg  upon  a  buckle  formed  of  the  bone  of  the 
sea-horse  ;"  and  a  third,  as  having  "  a  balawg  of  yel- 
low gold  upon  a  clasp  made  of  the  eyelid  of  a  black 

Baner,  or  Baniar,  from  bayi,  (high  or  aloft) — A  banner  or 
ensign,  on  which  the  chieftain's  arms  were  emblazoned. 

"  When  the  generous  of  the  line  of  Llewelyn  comes, 
With  his  baner  of  red  and  of  yellow, 
Eager  to  destroy  and  to  conquer, 
He  shall  in  truth  possess  the  border  land  of  Cynfyn." 

Goronwy  Ddu,  1320-1370. 

The  Herbert  banner  is  thus  described  by  Lewis  Glyn 
Cothi,   1430-1470:— 

"  Three  lions  argent  are  upon  his  baner, 
Three  rampant  on  a  field  of  the  rule  of  R.^ 
Bundles  of  arrows,  numerous  as  the  stars. 
Form  his  badge  of  honour." 

The  banner  was  sometimes  hoisted  on  a  proper  staff 
called  manawyd,  mentioned  in  the  "  Gododin,"  and 
sometimes  also  on  a  lance  called  paladr,  as  we  find  in 
the  "  Dream  of  Rhonabwy." 

1  /.  e.,  red  or  gules. 

120  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

Bangaw — The  bandage  of  honour. 

Barddgwccwll — A  hood  of  sky  blue,  which  the  privi- 
leged Bard  wore  on  all  occasions  that  he  officiated,  as 
a  graduated  badge  or  literary  ornament.  This  habit 
was  borrowed  from  the  British  Bards  by  the  Druids 
of  Gaul,  and  from  them  by  the  Romans,  who  called  it 
Bardocucullus  or  the  Bard's  Cowl.  —  (See  James 
Patriarclial  Religion,  &c.,  p.  75.) 

"  Gallia  Santonico  vestit  te  hardocucullo, 
Cercopithecorum  penula  nuper  erat." 

Mart,  14,  128. 

Barf — A  beard.  The  Ancient  Britons  are  said  to  have 
worn  their  beard  on  the  upper  lip  only.  The  harf 
was  looked  upon  as  a  sign  of  manliness,  hence  Lly- 
warch  Hen  observes, — 

"  Cynddylan,  thou  comely  son  of  Cyndrwyn, 
It  is  not  proper  that  a  harf  should  be  worn  round  the  nose 
By  a  man  who  was  no  better  than  a  maid." 

Elegy  on  Cynddylan  ah  Cyndrwyn. 

And  of  such  importance  was  it  to  preserve  the  honour 
of  the  beard,  that  "  to  wish  disgrace  upon  his  harf 
was  one  of  the  tln^ee  causes  for  which  the  Welsh  Laws 
empowered  a  man  to  inflict  personal  castigation  upon 
his  wife.  Llywarch  Hen  thus  alludes  to  the  disgrace 
of  beards  : — 

"  When  God  separates  from  man, 
When  the  young  separates  from  the  old, 
Forgive  to  the  flyer  the  disgrace  of  harfau." 

Barfle — The  crest  of  a  helmet,  or  beaver. 

"  And  behold  Gwrlas,  prince  of  Cornwall,  with  his  legion 
drawing  near  to  them,  and  dispersing  the  Saxons  ;  and  what 


did  Eidol  tlien  do,  under  such  encouragement,  but  took  Hen- 
gist  by  the  barjle  of  his  hehuet,  and  brought  him  amongst  his 
legion,  and  cried  with  all  his  might,  '  Bear  down  the  Saxons 
under  foot.'  " — Gr.  ah  Arthur. 

Baryflen,  or  Barywlen — The  upper  part  of  a  shield. 
Cynon,  in  the  "  Lady  of  the  Fountain,"  thus  describes 
the  mode  whereby  he  protected  himself  from  a  terrible 
shower  of  hailstones  : — 

"  I  turned  my  horse's  flank  towards  the  shower,  and  placed 
the  beak  of  my  shield  over  his  head  and  neck,  while  I  held  the 
barywlen  over  my  own  head;  and  thus  I  withstood  the 

Ber — A  spear,  or  a  pike.  This  is  frequently  mentioned 
by  Aneurin  as  one  of  the  weapons  of  the  heroes  of 
Gododin.  It  was  regarded  as  something  similar  to 
the  lance  alluded  to  in  St.  John,  xix.,  34  ;  for  Taliesin, 
in  his  "  Ode  on  the  Day  of  Judgment,"  represents 
our  Saviour  as  addressing  his  crucifiers  thus  : — 

"  To  you  there  will  be  no  forgiveness, 
For  piercing  me  with  herau" 

Beraes — A  buckler ;  a  short  shield. 

Berllysg — A  truncheon.    According  to  the  Welsh  Laws, 

the  usher  of  the  hall  had  to  carry  a  berllysg,  in  order 

to  clear  the  way  before  the  king. 

"  The  door-keeper  ought  to  clear  the  way  for  the  king  with 
his  berllysg,  and  whatever  man  he  may  strike  at  arm's  length 
with  his  berllysg,  should  such  seek  for  redress,  he  ought  not 
to  have  it." 

The  etymology  of  the  word  intimates  that  his  official 
wand  was  but  of  a  short  size. 
Bliant — Fine  linen,  as  cambric  or  lawn.     This  word  is 



of  frequent  occurrence  in  the  poems  and  Mabinogion. 
Thus  we  read  of  "  a  table  cloth  of  bliant,"  and  of  a 
"gown  or  coat  of  bliant."     Prydydd  y  Moch,  1160- 
1220,  thus  speaks  of  Llewelyn  ab  lorwerth: — 
"  A  man  resisting  reproach,  powerful  in  opposing  Lloegr 
Is  Llewelyn,  when  he  is  about  to  march 
Before  the  covering  of  the  shower  of  royalty, 
Clad  in  green  and  white  bliant." 

Blif — A  warlike  engine  to  shoot  stones  out  of;  a  cata- 
"  Battering  with  the  blif,  like  a  torrent, 
The  stones  of  the  gloomy  walls  of  Berwick  Castle." 

lolo  to  Edward  III. 

BoDRWY — A  ring  worn  on  the  thumb,  as  we  infer  from 

the  etymology  of  the  word,  viz.,  bawd-rhwy. 
BoGEL — A  boss. 

"  The  man  who  was  in  the  stead  of  Arawn  struck  Hafo-an 
on  the  centre  of  the  bogel  of  his  shield,  so  that  it  was  cloven 
in  twain." — Mab.     Pwy II  prince  of  Dyfed. 

BoGLWM — Id.,  "  Boglwm  tarian,"  the  boss  of  a  shield. 
BoLLT — A  bolt,  dart,  or  quarrel,  shot  out  of  an  engine. 
BoREUwiSG — A  morning  dress. 
BoTAS — A  buskin  ;  also  a  boot.     The  value  of  botasau 

cynnyglog,  (plaited  greaves,)  is  estimated  in  the  Laws 

of  Hywel  Dda  at  fourpence. 
BoTWM  — A  button  ;  a  boss.     Dafydd  ab  Gwilym  calls 

hazel  nuts — • 

"  The  pretty  botymau  of  the  branches  of  trees." 
Both — The  boss  of  a  buckler. 
Bras — A  cross-bow. 

"  The  swift  comes  from  the  bras." — Adage. 


Brasliain — A  coarse  linen  cloth. 

Brat — A  clout  or  rag.  Pwyll,  when  disguised  as  a 
beggar,  was  clad  "  in  heavy  bratiau,  and  wore  large 
clumsy  shoes  upon  his  feet." — Pwyll  prince  of  Dyfed. 

Breichdlws — An  ornament  for  the  arm  ;  a  bracelet. 

Breiciiled — Id. 

Breichledr — A  bracelet ;  a  leather  band  for  the  arm. 
It  seems  to  have  been  worn  by  bowmen,  for  Lewis 
Glyn  Cothi,  in  describing  the  kind  of  bow  he  should 
wish  to  have,  and  the  manner  in  which  he  should 
handle  it,  adds  in  connexion  therewith, — 
"  I  will  wear  a  breichledr,  if  I  can, 
Of  gold  or  of  silver."— P.  374. 

Breichrwy — A  bracelet,  worn  by  distinguished  persons 
of  both  sexes. 

"  Breichrwyau  of  gold  were  round  his  arms,  a  profusion  of 
golden  rings  on  his  hands,  and  a  wreath  of  gold  round  his 
neck,  and  a  frontlet  of  gold  on  his  head,  keeping  up  his  hair, 
and  he  had  a  magnificent  appearance." — Dream  of  Maxen 
Wledig.     Mabinogion. 

"  Greatly  am  I  made  to  blush  by  her  that  is  the  colour  of  the 
twirling  eddies  of  the  wave. 
When  her  breast  receives  the  reflection  of  the  breichrwy." 
Cynddelw,  1130-1200,  to  Efa,  daughter  of 
Madawg  prince  of  Powys. 

Breichrwy  was  another  name  for  the  bardic  armlet, 
which,  in  the  Institutes  of  the  Round  Table,  was  called 
amrwy  and  aerwy. — (See  Aerwy.) 

In  the  Laws  of  Hywel  Dda  there  is  no  fixed  value 
attached  to  the   breichrwy,  but  it  is  directed  that  it 
should  be  appraised  upon  oath. 
Breninwisg — A  royal  robe. 

124  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

Brethyn — Cloth ;  woollen  cloth.  Mention  is  made  in 
the  "  Dream  of  Rhonabwy,"  of  a  "  page  having  two 
stockings  of  thin  greenish  yellow  hrethyn  upon  his 
feet;"  and  in  "  Pwyll  prince  of  Dyfed,"  of  a  "horse- 
man upon  a  large  grey  steed,  with  a  hunting  horn 
about  his  neck,  and  clad  in  garments  of  grey  hrethyn, 
in  the  fashion  of  a  hunting  garb." 

Brethynwisg — A  woollen  garment.  According  to  the 
Laws  of  Hywel  Dda,  the  officers  of  the  royal  court 
were  to  receive  their  brethynwisg  from  the  king  at  the 
festivals  of  Christmas,  Easter,  and  Whitsunday. 

Brithlen — Arras. 

Brondor — A  breast-plate ;  also  a  shield.  Cynddelw 
represents  Owain  Cyfeiliog  as  having  a  hrondor  in 
both  senses  of  the  word. 

"  A  strong  brondor  (breast-plate)  has  the  over-daring  one,  who 
habituates  the  packs  of  wolves 
To  tread  upon  the  dead  carcases  of  the  plain." 

"  Terror  arises  from  the  din  of  the  blue  sea,  and  a  tumult 
From  the  brave  with  the  quick  moving  hrondor  (shield)." 

Broneg — A  breastplate ;  a  stomacher. 

Bronfoll — Id. 

Brongengl — A  corslet ;  a  poitrel  or  breast -leather  for  a 
horse.  The  brongengl,  as  a  part  of  horse-gear,  is 
mentioned  in  the  Laws  of  Hywel  Dda. 

Bronglwm — A  breast-knot. 

Brwg — A  covering. 

Brycan — A  rug,  blanket,  or  coverlet  ;  also  a  clog, 
brogue,  or  large  shoe,  to  wear  over  another.  The  fol- 
lowing extracts  refer  to  it  in  its  former  acceptation  : — 
"  The  three  essentials  of  a  genuine  gentleman ;  a  brycan,  a 


harp,  and  a  cauldron ;  and  they  are  his  prime  portion." — Laws 
of  Dyf nival  Moclmud. 

"  Three  things  which  are  not  to  be  shared  with  another;  a 
sword,  a  knife,  and  a  hrycan  ;  for  the  owner  will  keep  them  by 
right  of  law."— 76. 

In  case  of  separation  between  man  and  wife,  when 
the  property  is  to  be  divided,  the  husband  is,  by  the 
Laws  of  Hywel  Dda,  entitled  to  the  brycan.  In  the 
same  code  the  hrycan  of  a  freeholder  is  valued  at  sixty 

In  the  "  Dream  of  Rhonabwy,"  we  are  presented 
with  this  description  of  a  couch  in  a  peasant's  house  : — 

"  It  (the  couch)  seemed  to  be  made  but  of  a  little  coarse 
straw  full  of  dust  and  vermin,  with  the  stems  of  boug-hs 
sticking  up  therethrough,  for  the  cattle  had  eaten  all  the  straw 
that  was  placed  at  the  head  and  the  foot ;  and  upon  it  was 
stretched  an  old  russet  coloured  hrycan,  threadbare  and  rag- 
ged ,•  and  a  coarse  sheet,  full  of  slits,  was  upon  the  hrycan  ; 
and  an  ill-stulFed  pillow,  and  a  worn  out  cover,  upon  the 

Brych — A  rough,  streaked,  or  spotted  covering  ;  a  tar- 
tan, or  plaid. 

"  Apud  plures  extat  authores  Gallos  vestimentis  quibusdam 
usos  fuisse,  quoe  Brachas  patrio  sermone   dixerunt;   haec   et 
nostris  Britannis  communia  fuisse  docet  Martialis  versiculus, — 
*  Quam  veteres  Bracha  Britonis  pauperis.'  " 


Brysyll,  or  Brysgyll — A  truncheon;  a  mace,  or  sceptre. 
A  hrysyll,  in  the  hands  of  a  religious  man,  appears  as 
one  of  the  most  primitive  objects  which  the  Britons 
used  to  swear  by ;  thus  we  are  informed  in  the  Laws 
of  Dyfnwal  Moelmud  that — 

126  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

"  There  are  three  rehcs  to  swear  by ;  the  hrysyll  of  the 
minister  of  reHgion  (golychwydwr),  the  name  of  God,  and 
hand  joined  in  hand  ;  and  these  are  called  hand  relics.  There 
are  three  other  modes  of  swearing  ;  a  declaration  upon  con- 
science, a  declaration  in  the  face  of  the  sun,  and  a  strong 
declaration  by  the  protection  of  God  and  His  truth." — Triad, 
In  the  same  Laws  we  also  have  the  following  : — 

"  There  are  three  blows  which  a  lord  may  administer  upon 
his  subject  in  the  exercise  of  his  rule ;  one  with  his  hrysyll, 
viz.,  his  official  rod,  one  with  the  flat  of  his  sword,  and  one 
with  the  palm  of  his  hand." — Triad,  202. 
The  hrysyll  was  also  one  of  the  insignia  of  the  bards, 
and  "  it  denoted  privilege ;  and  where  there  was  a  sit- 
ting in  judgment,  it  was  not  right  to  bear  any  insignia 
except  the  brysyll'"' — lolo  MSS.,  p.  634. 
BwA — A  bow.      (See  Arf.) 

"  Better  the  use  of  the  sickle  than  the  hwa." — Aneurin.. 
The  value  of  a  hwa,  with  twelve  arrows,  is  estimated 
in  Hywel  Dda's  Laws  at  fourpence.  The  hwa  was 
generally  made  of  yew ;  yet  we  read  in  the  "  Lady  of 
the  Fountain"  of  "  an  ivory  hwa,  strung  with  the 
sinews  of  the  stag,"  and  in  Lewis  Glyn  Cothi  of  "  steel 
hwaau."  In  a  tale,  written  apparently  in  the  four- 
teenth century,  Gwgan  the  Bard  longs  to  have  "  a  bow 
of  red  yew  in  his  hand,  ready  bent,  with  a  tough  tight 
string,  and  a  straight  round  shaft,  with  a  compass- 
rounded  nock,  and  long  slender  feathers  fastened  on 
with  green  silk,  and  a  steel  head,  heavy  and  thick, 
and  an  inch  across,  of  a  green  blue  temper,  that  would 
draw  blood  out  of  a  weathercock."  (See  Lady  of 
the  Fountain.     Notes.) 


It  was  customary  to  gild  bows  in  the  fourteenth 
century,  as  the  following  lines  of  Dafydd  ab  Gwilym 
testify : — 

"  The  vilest  hwa  that  e'er  was  framed  of  yew, 
That  in  the  hand  abruptly  snaps  in  two, 
When  all  its  faults  are  varnished  o'er  with  gold, 
Looks  strong,  and  fair,  and  faultless,  and — is  sold." — Ibid. 

BwccLED — A  buckler.  Arm.  Bouclezer. 
BwYELL — An  axe,  or  hatchet.  There  were  several  sorts 
of  hwyell ;  such  as  hwyell  lydan,  a  working  hatchet ; 
hwyell  hii\  and  hwyell  gynnud,  an  axe  to  fell  timber  ; 
hwyell  arf^  arf-fwyell,  and  hwyell  ennilleg,  a  battle- 

In  the  Laws  of  Hy wel  Dda  the  hwyell  lydan  is  valued 
at  fourpence ;  the  hwyell  cynnud  at  twopence ;  the 
hwyell  arf,  or  hwyell  ennilleg  at  twopence  ;  and  the 
hwyell  fechan  (small  axe)  at  one  penny. 

The  king's  woodman  was  entitled  to  protection  as 
far  as  he  could  throw  his  hwyell. — Welsh  Laws. 

The  socket  of  a  hwyell  cynnud  was  one  of  the  three 
things  which  the  palace  smith  was  obliged  to  make 
gratuitously  for  the  use  of  the  royal  household. — Ihid. 

The  king  could  demand  a  man,  a  horse,  and  a 
hwyell  to  make  tents  with,  from  every  township  under 
villain  soccage  tenure. — Ihid. 

In  the  division  of  goods  between  man  and  wife,  the 
former  claimed  the  hwyell  cynnud,  and  the  latter  the 
hwyell  lydan. — Ihid. 

That  the  hwyell  was  used  as  a  weapon  of  war  in  the 
sixth  century,  appears  from  the  following  triad  : — 

"  The  three  accursed  hwyellawd  (battle-axe  strokes)  of  the 

128  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

Isle  of  Britain;  the  hwyellawd  of  Eiddyn  on  the  head  of 
Aneurin,  the  hwyellawd  on  the  head  of  lago  the  son  of  Beh, 
and  the  hwyellawd  on  the  head  of  Golyddan  the  bard." 

The  bivyell  is  reckoned  as  one  of  the  insignia  of  the 

Bards : — 

"  The  bwyell  is  the  symbol  of  science  and  of  its  improve- 
ment ;  and  the  bards  of  Glamorgan  bear  it  through  privilege 
of  the  chair :  and  the  hwyell  has  privilege,  viz.,  the  person  who 
bears  it  by  warrant  of  the  judgment  of  the  chair,  is  authorised 
to  show  improvement  in  knowledge  and  science  before  the 
chair  and  gorsedd ;  and  he  has  precedence  in  that,  and  his 
word  is  warranted." — lolo  MSS.,  p.  633. 


Cadach — A  piece  of  cloth;  a  kerchief;  a  swaddling 

"  Caeo  is  famous  for  its  thorny  hedges. 
Its  clamour  and  fleas,  and  the  prosecution  of  thieves. 
The  selling  of  goats  upon  credit,  its  trees, 
And  its  variegated  cadachau" 

Characteristics  of  parts  of  Wales  (Mediaeval), 
Apud  Myv.  Arch.,  i.,  p.  541. 

Cad  AS — A  kind  of  stuff,  or  cloth. 

"  A  robe  of  silk  and  cadas." — D.  ah  Gwilym. 

"  Not  in  precious  gold,  nor  cadas, 
A  troublesome  load,  but  in  a  pale  covering." 

S.  Ceri,  1520. 

Cadbais — A  coat  of  mail ;  a  corslet.  Llywarch  Hen 
represents  Caranmael  as  wearing  the  cadbais  of  Cyn- 
ddylan  on  the  field  of  battle. 


"  When  Caranmael  put  on  the  cadhais  of  Cynddylan, 
And  lifted  up  and  shook  his  aslien  spear, 
From  his  mouth  the  Frank  would  not  get  the  word  of  peace." 

Elegy  on  Cynddylan. 

Cadfan — The  martial  horn  ;   from  cad  (a  battle)   and 

ban  (loud), 
Cadfwyell — A  battle-axe.     See  Bwyell. 
Cadgorn — ^The  horn  of  battle.     It  would  appear  from 
the  following  passage  that  drinking-horns  were,  occa- 
sionally at  least,  used  as  such  : — 
"  A  baron — 
The  shrill  blower  of  cadgyrn,  the  ample  mead  horns." 
Llyw.  Ben  Twrch,  1450-1480. 

Cadseirch — War  harness.    One  of  the  chiefs  of  Gododin 
"  Supported  martial  steeds^  and  cadseirch, 
Drenched  with  gore  on  the  red-stained  field  of  Cattraeth." 

Cadwaew — A  war  lance. 
Cadwen — A  chain ;  a  bandage. 
Cadwy — A  rug  ;  a  covering. 

Cadwyn — A  chain.     It  was  of  gold,  and  worn  by  war- 
rior chiefs.    Thus  Llywarch  Hen  describes  Cynddylan 
prince  of  Powys,  as — 
"  Cynddylan,  eminent  for  sagacity  of  thought, 
Cadwynawg  (wearing  the  chain),  foremost  in  the  host. 
The  protector  of  Tren,  whilst  he  lived." 

Elegy  on  Cynddylan. 

Cae — A  ring ;  a  necklace ;  an  ornamental  wreath.    Some 
of  the  chiefs  of  Gododin  were  decked  with  a  cae. 
"  Caeog  (adorned  with  his  wreath)  was  the  leader,  the  wolf  of 
the  holme. 
Amber  beads  in  ringlets  encircled  his  temples." — Aneurin. 


130  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

One  of  the  Mabinogion,  describing  Elen,  daughter  of 
Eudaf,  and  sister  of  Cynan  Meiriadog,  says  of  her, — 

"  The  maid  was  clothed  in  robes  of  white  silk,  and  her 
bosom  was  decked  with  caeau  of  ruddy  gold." — Dream  of 
Maxen  Wledig. 

In  another  of  these  tales  the  dress  of  Owain,  the  son 
of  Urien,  is  thus  described  : — • 

"  The  next  day  at  noon  Owain  arrayed  himself  in  a  coat, 
and  a  surcoat,  and  a  mantle  of  yellow  satin,  upon  which  was 
a  broad  band  of  gold  lace ;  and  on  his  feet  were  high  shoes 
of  variegated  leather,  which  were  fastened  by  golden  caeau  in 
the  form  of  lions." — Lady  of  the  Fountain. 

A  Cae  was  to  be  valued  on  oath. — Myv.  Arch.,  iii.,  p. 

Caead — A  clasp.  A  young  page  in  the  Tale  of  "  Rho- 
nabwy"  had  "over  his  hose,  shoes  of  parti-coloured 
leather,  fastened  at  the  insteps  with  golden  caeadau." 
—P.  407. 

Caerawg — This  epithet,  applied  to  a  particular  kind  of 
cloth,  signifies  "  kersey-woven,"  and  is  so  used  because 
of  the  similitude  of  the  texture  to  the  work  in  stone 
walls,  the  primary  meaning  of  caerawg  being  mural. 
Lady  Charlotte  Guest  has,  in  the  subjoined  passage, 
translated  it  by  the  term  "  diapered,"  which  she  con- 
siders as  more  appropriate  in  reference  to  satin,  and 
which  Warton  {^ng.  Poe.,  ii.,  9,  1824)  believes  pro- 
perly to  signify  "  embroidering  on  a  rich  ground,  as 
tissue,  cloth  of  gold,"  &c. 

"  On  Whit  Tuesday,  as  the  king  sat  at  the  banquet,  lo  ! 
there  entered  a  tall,  fair-headed  youth,  clad  in  a  coat  and  a 
surcoat  of  caerawg  satin,  and  a  golden-hilted  sword  about  his 


neck,  and  low  shoes  of  leather  upon  his  feet." — Geraint  ab 

Calcii — Enamelled  armour.     It  is  a  word  of  frequent 
occurrence  in  the  Welsh  poems,  e.  g. : — 

"  Sweetly  sang  the  birds  on  the  fragrant  blossomed  apple  tree, 
Over  the  head  of  Gwen,  before  he  was  covered  with  sod. 
He  used  to  fracture  the  calch  of  old  Llywarch  ! " 

LI.  Hen  on  Old  Age. 

"  They  shattered  the  calch  on  the  faces  of  Cyndrwynwyn's  sons." 

Meigant,  600-650. 

"  The  wrathful  blade  would  slay, 
The  azure  tinted  calch  would  gleam." — Cynddelw. 

Calchdo,    and   Calchdoed — An    enamelled    covering; 
painted  armour. 

"  Violent  was  the  destruction  of  the  flank  and  front  of  the 
And  the  breaking  of  the  calchdoedd  of  the  land  on  the  third 
day  after."  Meilyr,  1 120-1 160. 

Cap — A  cap. 

Capan— A  cap,  or  hat.     Myrddin  Wyllt  (530-600)  thus 

addresses  a  person  bearing  the  name  of  Yscolan,  {q.  St. 

Columba  ?)  : — 

"  Black  is  thy  steed — black  thy  capan, 
Black  thy  head — thyself  art  black. 
Black  thy  pate — art  thou  Yscolan  ?  " 

Myv.  Arch.,  i.,  p.  132. 

We  read  in  the  Welsh  Laws  that 

"  The  king  gave  to   the  church  of  Menevia  two   choral 
capanau  of  velvet." 

Also, — 

"  The  head  groom  is  entitled  to  the  king's  pluvial  capanau, 

132  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

and  his  old  saddles  of  the  colour  of  their  wood,  and  his  old 
cast  oiF  bridles,  and  his  old  cast  offspurs." 

In  the  same  Laws  we  find  that  a  capan  dinesig  (a  civil 

cap)  is  valued  at  twenty-four  pence. 
Carai — A  bandage,  or  lace ;  a  thong.      Carai  Esgid,  a 

shoe-latchet.     Esgidiau    Careiawg,  or   shoes  having 

latchets,  are  estimated  in  the  Laws  of  Hywel  Dda  at 

Carddagl — A  skirt. 
Carn — The  haft,  or  hilt  of  a  weapon. 

"She  opened   a  wooden   casket,  and  drew   forth  a  razor, 

whose  carn  was  of  ivory,  and  upon  which  were  two  rivets  of 

gold." — Ladt/  of  the  Fountain. 

Carnial — A  shoe  sole. 

Carp — A  clout,    a   rag.      In   reference   to   our   blessed 

Saviour's  nativity,  Madawg  ap  Gwalter  (a.d.  1250) 

observes, — 

"  Instead  of  fine  linen 
About  His  bed,  were  seen  carpiau.'* 

Myv.  Arch.,  i.,  p.  406. 

Casmai — A  set  of  ornaments. 

"  Around  him  were  casmai, 
And  the  flowers  of  the  charming  branches  of  May." 

D.  ah  Gwilym. 

Casul — A  casula,  or  chasuble;  the  priest's  vestment. 
Taliesin,  probably  in  his  character  of  Druid,  says  of 
himself, — 

"  I  have  been  the  weigher  of  the  falling  drops, 
Dressed  in  my  casul,  and  furnished  with  my  bowl." 

Myv.  Arch.,  i.,  p.  31. 

Caw — A  band,  or  wrapper.     Cawiau — Swaddling  clouts. 


"  The  bard's  armlet  is  worn  on  the  arm,  below  the  shonlder 
joint,  and  in  Gwyncdd  it  was  anciently  called  Caw,  as  also  in 
Deheubarth,  and  often  in  Glamorgan  it  was  so  called  likewise ; 
therefore  the  bard  was  called  the  Bard  Caw  [or  the  Bard  of 
the  band],  after  he  had  received  the  order  of  the  Pen  Cerdd 
[or  the  Chief  of  Song],  and  the  three  Beirdd  Caw  included 
the  Privardd  [Chief  Bard],  the  Ovydd  [Ovate],  and  the  Der- 
wyddvardd  [or  the  Druid  Bard],  otherwise  called  Privardd, 
or  Bardd  Glas,  Arwyddvardd  or  Gwyn  Vardd,  [the  Bard  of 
the  Sign,  or  the  White  Bard,]  and  the  Bargadvardd  and 
Cylvardd."— /o/o  MSS.,  p.  632. 

Cedaflen — A  napkin. 
Ceitlen — A  smock  frock. 

Cethrawr — A  pike.  It  was  a  weapon  used  in  the  battle 
of  Cattraeth,  in  the  sixth  century. 

"  The  envious,  the  fickle,  and  the  base. 
Would  he  tear  and  pierce  with  a  cethrawr.'' — Gododin. 

It  cannot  be  the  same  as  the  "  brevis  cetra,"  which, 
according  to  Tacitus,  formed  a  part  of  the  armour  of 
the  ancient  Britons,  and  which  is  described  as  a  shield 
or  target  made  of  leather,  very  light,  and  of  a  circular 
form.  A  cethrawr  is  valued  in  the  Welsh  Laws  at 

Cewyn — A  small  bandage  ;  a  clout. 

CiGWAiN — A  flesh-fork  ;  also  a  spear  used  for  hunting 
purposes.  Thus  we  read  of  one  of  the  heroes  of 
Gododin, — 

"  As  many  as  thy  father  could  reach. 
With  his  cigwain, 
Of  wild  boars,  lions,  and  foxes. 

It  was  certain  death  to  them  all,  unless  they  proved  too 
nimble."  Aneurin. 

134  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

It  was  likewise  used  as  a  military  weapon.     For  in- 
stance, Cynddelw  thus  observes  of  Owain  Gwynedd, — 

"  A  prosperous  lord,  ruddy  was  his  cigwain" 

The  domestic  cigwain  of  a  king  was  estimated  at 
twenty-four  pence ;  that  of  a  freeholder  at  twelve 
Cledd,  Cleddeu,  and  Cleddyf — A  sword.  The  cleddyf 
was  one  of  the  three  lawful  arms  (see  Arf).  In  the 
old  Law  Triads,  the  value  of  a  white-hilted  cleddyf  is 
twenty-four  pence ;  if  it  be  brittle-edged  (hardened), 
sixteen  pence ;  and,  if  it  has  a  round  handle,  twelve 
pence.  According  to  the  code,  which  was  revised  and 
settled  by  Hywel  Dda,  a  brittle-edged  cleddyf  is 
valued  at  twelve  pence ;  a  round-hilted  one  at  sixteen 
pence ;  and  the  white-hilted  one  at  twenty-four  pence. 
In  Roman  times  the  northern  Britons  used  very  large 
swords,  ingentes  gladii. — See  Tacitus. 

Lewis  Glyn  Cothi  has  written  a  poem  to  beg  a 
cleddyf  from  Dafydd  ab  Gutyn,  from  which  we  may 
learn  what  were  looked  upon  in  his  days  as  the  essen- 
tials of  a  good  sword.  The  following  are  the  lines 
which  bear  more  immediately  upon  the  subject ;  and, 
as  it  would  be  difficult  to  convey  the  full  and  precise 
meaning  of  the  author  through  the  medium  of  a  trans- 
lation, we  shall  give  them  in  their  original  dress  : — • 

"  Y  mae  'n  ei  gylch,  er  mwyn  ei  gil, 
Dwrn  byr  mor  durn  a  baril ; 
Y  mae  pais  o'r  gariiais  gwyn, 
A  chramp  mal  cylch  ar  impyn  ; 
Mae  gwregys  fForchog  gogam, 
A  chrys  o  goed  a  chroes  gam  ; 



Wrth  y  groes,  wedi'r  weithiaw, 
Y  mae  yn  lied  i'm  no  Haw  ; 
Mae  blaen  arno  fo  yn  fain 
Fal  nodwydd  neu  flaen  adain  ; 
Blaen  yvv  fal  diflaen  y  dart, 
Dur  avvchus  yw  o  drichwart ; 
Croes  wen  rhag  rhyw  was  annoeth, 
Croes  naid,  o'i  uncrys  yn  noeth ; 
Llain  las  wrth  ddarllen  ei  liw, 
Lien  wydr  fal  ellyn  ydyw ; 
Goleu  yw  hwn  fal  bagl  hir, 
A  gloew  ydyw  fal  glodir  ; 
Lleiddiad  fal  cyllell  luddew, 
A  thra  llym  fal  ysgythr  Hew." — V,  iii. 
We  read  in    the  "  Mabinogion"   of  a    "three-edged 
cleddyf." — Dream  of  Rhonahwy,  p.  407. 

The  deddijf  hung  on  the  left  side  of  the  bearer ; 
hence  the  word  cledd  signifies  both  a  sword  and  the 
left  hand  ;  also,  the  north,  from  its  being  on  the  left 
of  a  person  looking  eastward,  even  as  the  deheu,  or 
south,  is  on  his  right. 
Clos — A  pair  of  breeches. 
Clwpa — A  club. 

"  Geraint  foHowed  the  giants,  and  overtook  them.  And 
each  of  them  was  greater  of  stature  than  three  other  men,  and 
a  huge  clwpa  was  on  the  shoulder  of  each." — Geraint  ah 
Erhin,  p.  130. 

Dau  wr  a  chlwpa,  the  play  of  cat  and  trap. 
Clwt — A  clout ;  a  piece  of  cloth. 

"  A  clwt  is  better  than  a  hole." — Adage. 
Cnap — A  boss ;  a  button. 

"  A  little  way  from  them,  I  saw  a  man  in  the  prime  of  life, 
with  his  beard  newly  shorn,  clad  in  a  robe  and  a  mantle  of 

136  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

yellow  satin ;  and  round  the  top  of  his  mantle  was  a  band 
of  gold  lace.  On  his  feet  were  shoes  of  variegated  leather, 
fastened  by  two  cnapau  of  gold." — Lady  of  the  Fountain. 

Cob — A  cloak  ;  a  mantle  ;  a  cope. 

CocHL — A  mantle,  probably,  as  we  infer  from  the  etymo- 
logy of  the  word,  of  a  red  colour. 
Cod — A  bag,  or  pouch  ;   a  wrapper. 

"If  thou  shouldest  go  to  the  region  of  the  south, 
Thou  wilt  be  like  the  badger  in  a  cod." — D.  ah  Gwilym. 

The  origin  of  the  game  of  "  Badger  in  the  Cod^'  is 
described  in  the  Mabinogi  of  Pwyll  prince  of  Dyfed. 

CoESARN — A  boot. 

CoLER — A  collar. 

CoRDWAL — Leather.  It  occurs  in  the  Mabinogion,  and 
is  there  evidently  intended  for  the  French  Cordouan 
or  Cordovan  leather,  which  derived  its  name  from 
Cordova,  where  it  was  manufactured. 

"  On  his  feet  were  shoes  of  variegated  cordwal." 

See  Lady  of  the  Fountain. 

Corn — A  horn  ;  a  trumpet. 

"  There  are  three  trumpet  progressions ;  the  gathering-  of  a 
country  according  to  the  heads  of  families  and  chiefs  of  clans, 
the  corn  of  harvest,  and  the  corn  of  war  and  battle  against 
the  oppression  of  adjoining  countries  and  aliens." — Laws  of 
Dyfnwal  Moelmud. 

CoRON — A  crown.  The  following  passage  from  Brut  y 
Tywysogion  {Myv.  Arch.,  ii.,  p.  481),  seems  to  imply 
that  the  coron  was  not  used  by  the  Welsh  as  a  regal 
badge  previous  to  the  reign  of  Rhodri  Mawr,  in  the 
ninth  century  : — 

"These  (Cadell,    Anarawd  and   Merfyn)  were  called  the 


tliree  diademed  princes,  because  they,  contrary  to  all  that  pre- 
ceded them,  wore  frontlets  ahout  their  coronau,  like  the  kings 
of  other  countries ;  whereas,  before  that  time,  the  kings  and 
princes  of  the  Welsh  nation  wore  only  golden  chains." 

CoRONiG — A  bandlet ;  a  coronet. 

CowYLL-  A  garment,  or  cloak,  with  a  veil,  presented  by 

the  husband  to  his  bride  on  the  morning  after  marriage. 

— See  Jjaivs  of  Hywel  Dda. 
Crib — A  comb.    It  is  valued  in  the  Laws  at  one  penny. 
Crimogau — Greaves,  or  armour  for  the  legs. 

"  He  was  arrayed  in  a  coat  of  armour,  with  crimogau  round 
his  legs  and  his  thighs." — Mahinogion. 

Crud — A  cover  ;  a  case  ;  armour. 

"  The  three  warriors  of  the  isle  of  Britain  that  wore  golden 
crM^."— See  Triad  124. 

"  A  stream  of  blood  upon  his  crud, 
The  crud  of  the  victorious  sovereign,  chief  of  the  country." 
Cynddelw  to  Hywel  son  of  Owain. 

Crys — A  loose,  or  flowing  garment ;   a  shirt,  or  shift. 
Lly  warch  Hen  carried  the  head  of  Urien  in  his  crys. 

"  I  bear  in  my  crys  a  head ;  the  head  of  Urien, 
That  governed  a  court  with  mildness. 
And  on  his  white  bosom  the  sable  raven  doth  glut." 

Elegy  on  Urien  RJieged. 

And  Golyddan  (560-630)  says  of  the  few  Cimbrian 
soldiers  who  once  returned  from  the  field  of  battle, — 

"  They  told  a  tale  of  peace  to  their  wives. 
Who  smelled  their  crysau  full  of  gore." 

Myv.  Arch.,  i.,  p.  157. 

In  the  tale  of  the  "  Lady  of  the  Fountain,"  Cynon, 

138  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

in  narrating  one  of  his  adventures,  thus  alludes  to 
the  treatment  which  he  received  from  certain  young 
ladies  :  — 

"  The  fourth  six  took  off  my  soiled  garments,  and  placed 
others  upon  me,  namely,  a  crys,  and  a  doublet  of  fine  linen, 
and  a  robe,  and  a  surcoat,  and  a  mantle  of  yellow  satin,  with 
a  broad  gold  band  upon  the  mantle." 

The  handmaid  of  the  queen  was,  according  to  the 
Laws  of  Hywel  Dda,  entitled  to  the  cast-off  crysau  of 
her  royal  mistress.  The  same  Laws  gave  a  freeholder's 
wife  full  permission  to  give  away  her  mantle,  her  crys, 
her  shoes,  her  head-cloth,  and  her  meat  and  drink,  as 
as  well  as  to  lend  all  her  furniture. 

A  crys  and  trowsers  together  were  valued  at  twenty- 
four  pence. 

Crysbais — ^ Waistcoat ;  an  under  vest. 

Cryslain — The  opening,  or  bosom,  of  a  shirt. 

CuNNELLT — Weapons  of  war ;  from  cun  (a  chief),  and 
dellt  (splints). 

CuRAN — A  boot,  a  buskin. 

"  Should  any  man  strike  a  slave,  he  must  pay  him  twelve 
lawful  pence ; — that  is  to  say,  six  for  three  cubits  of  white 
home-spun  cloth,  wherewith  to  make  him  a  coat  in  which  to 
cut  gorse ;  and  three  for  trousers ;  and  one  for  curanau  and 
mittens  ;  and  one  for  a  hedging  bill ;  and  one  for  a  rope, 
twelve  cubits  long,  or  for  an  axe,  if  he  be  a  woodman." — 
Welsh  Laws. 

CuRAS — A  cuiras,  or  a  coat  of  mail.     In  the  middle  ages 
the  men  of  Tegeingl  were  remarkable  for  their  awk- 
wardness in  the  curas. 
"  Common  in  Tegeingl  is  the  awkward  in  a  curas 


At  all  times  ; — and  nobles  in  city 

And  plain  continually  without  substance,  without  grace." 

3Iyv.  Arch.,  i,,  p.  541. 

CwcwLL — A  cowl.  The  men  of  Powys  are  described  by 
Cynddelw  as — 

"  Scattering  in  the  battle,  harmless  before  a  cwcwll." 

Mijv.  Arch.,  i.,  p.  256. 

CwFL — A  hood,  or  cowl. 

"  Black  is  thy  cwji,  thy  note  is  good, 
Likewise  thy  robe,  thou  bird  of  harmonious  language." 

D.  ab  Gwilym  to  a  Blackbird. 

CwFLEN — A  cap  or  hat ;   a  hunting  cap. 

CwLBREN — A  bludgeon. 

CwLEN — A  hat. 

CwNSALLT — A  military  garment ;  a  general's  robe  ;  a 
cloak,  or  cassock,  worn  over  armour ;  a  military  cloak 
on  which  were  set  the  arms,  badges,  or  cognizance  of 
the  general  or  soldiers ;  the  cloak  of  an  herald-at-arms. 

"  The  maid  gave  to  Peredur  armour,  and  a  cwnsallt  of  fine 
red  over  the  armour ;  and  he  was  called  the  knight  of  the  red 
cwnsallt." — Hanes  Peredur,     Mahinogion. 

"  A  cwnsallt  of  yellow  diapred  satin  was  upon  the  knioht 
and  the  borders  of  the  cwnsallt  were  blue." — The  Dream  of 

"  There  was  a  cwnsallt  upon  him,  and  upon  his  horse,  divided 
in  two  parts,  white  and  black,  and  the  borders  of  the  cwnsallt 
were  of  golden  purple.  And  above  the  cwnsallt  he  wore  a 
sword,  three-edged  and  bright,  with  a  golden  hilt." — Ibid. 

In  the  I^hjfr  Meddygon  Mijddfai  (a.d.  1230)  the 
leaves  of  the  asparagus,  as  well  as  the  fennel,  are  said 
to  resemble  the  cwnsallt. 

140  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

CwRAN — Same  as  Curan. 

"  The  chief  huntsman,  if  he  is  not  arrested  before  his  getting 
out  of  bed,  and  the  putting  on  his  cwranau,  ought  not  to 
answer  to  any  one  with  respect  to  a  claim  that  may  be  de- 
manded of  him." — Laws  of  Hywel  Dda. 

Cyfegydd — A  pickaxe. 

Cyflegr — A  gun.  Its  etymology  cyd  (together)  and 
llegr  (that  braces  or  clasps)  would  of  course  imply- 
something  very  different  to  the  modern  gun. 

Cyfrau — Ornaments,  jewels. 

"  Ghttering  are  the  tops  of  the  cresses ;  warhke  is  the  steed  j 
Trees  are  fair  cyfrau  of  the  ground  ; 
Joyful  is  the  soul  with  the  one  it  loves." — Llywarch  Hen. 

Cyfrwym — A  bandage. 

Cylchwy — A  shield,  or  buckler;  as  the  name  implies,  of 
a  circular  or  round  shape.  This  word  is  of  frequent 
occurrence  in  the  compositions  of  the  early  bards ; 
e.  g.  :— 

"  His  cylchwy  was  winged  with  fire  for  the  slaughter." 

Aneurin  apud  Gododin. 

"  The  army  of  Cadwallon  encamped  on  the  Wye, 
The  common  men,  after  passing  the  water, 
Following  to  the  battle  of  cylchwy." — Llywarch  Hen. 

"  With  the  circle  of  ruddy  gems  on  my  golden  cylchwy.'' 


"  On  the  ridge  of  Llech  Vaelwy  they  shattered  the  cylchwy.^' 


"  Gleaming  is  my  sword,  swift  as  lightning  it  protects  the 
Glittering  is  the  gold  on  my  cylchwy." — Gwalchmai." 

Cyllell — A  knife.     It  would  seem  from  Taliesin  that 


in  his  day  the  cyllell  was  regarded   as   an   inferior 
weapon  of  war,  for  he  says, — 

"  The  swords  of  the  men  of  conflict  will  not  stab  the  puny 
cyllellawr  (dagger  drawer). 

In  the  romance  of  "  The  Lady  of  the  Fountain,"  men- 
tion is  made  of 

"  Cylleill  with  blades  of  gold,  and  with  the  hilts  of  the  bone 
of  the  whale." 

In  the  Laws  of  Hywel  Dda,  a  cyllell  glun,  or  a  dagger, 

is  valued  at  one  penny. 
Cynfas — A  sheet  of  cloth  ;  a  bed  sheet. 
Chwarel — A  dart,  a  javelin. 

"  When  the  bones  shall  receive  the  pang 
Of  death,  with  his  swift  chwarelau, 
Then  will  life  be  at  awful  pause." — D.  ah  Gwilym, 


Dart — A  dart. 

"  Illtyd  Farchog  bore  for  his  arms,  argent,  three  masts, 
three  castle  tops,  or,  and  six  darts,  or.  The  three  masts  for 
the  three  schools,  and  the  three  castle  tops  for  the  three  col- 
leges of  saints,  and  the  six  gold  darts  for  the  six  churches, 
which  he  founded  for  teaching  the  Christian  religion." — lolo 
MSS.,  p.  556. 

A  poet,  supposed  to  be  Dafydd  Nanmor,  a.d.  1460, 
prays  that  Henry  VII.  might  be  protected,  among 
other  things,  from 

"  A  stone  out  of  a  tower,  and  the  edge  of  a  dartT 
Again, — 

142  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

"  From  a  leopard,  a  dart,  and  the  teeth  of  a  monster." 

Ibid.,  pp.  313,  314. 

DiDDosBEN — Head-covering. 

DiFLAEN — The  beard,  or  beard -point  of  a  dart,  or  arrow. 
Lewis  Glyn  Cothi  says  of  the  point  of  the  sword, 
which  he  wished  to  receive  from  Dafydd  ab  Gutyn, 
(see  Cledd) — 

"  It  has  a  sharp  point, 
Like  that  of  a  needle,  or  the  point  of  a  wing ; 
A  point  like  the  dijiaen  of  a  dart." 

DiLLAD — Apparel,  or  clothes.  It  is  similarly  called  in 
the  Breton  dialect  Dillat,  and  in  the  Cornish,  Dill- 

"  Nobility  will  lead, 
Dillad  will  shelter." — Adage. 

DiLLYN — A  jewel ;  an  ornament. 
DuRDORCH — The  ring  of  an  habergeon. 

"  Who  would  make  a  track,  when  there  should  be  occasion. 
For  the  coats  of  durdyrcli  ? " 

O.  ah  Llywelyn  Moel,  a.d.  1450. 

DwGAN — A  trull,  a  drab. 

Dyrnflaidd — A  kind  of  iron  club  having  spikes  on  the 
striking  end  ;  a  halbert.  Dafydd  Nanmor  (as  is  sup- 
posed) says  in  reference  to  Henry  VH.  : — 

"  Fine  is  his  head,  which  a  whirler  or  bow. 
Or  battle-axe,  or  dyrnflaidd,  will  not  dare  to  strike," 

Mo  3ISS.,  p.  313. 

Dyrnfol — A  gauntlet,  or  splint ;  mitten ;  hedging  mit- 
ten. This  is  the  word  which  we  have  translated  mittens 
in  the  extract  from  the  Welsh  Laws,  sub  voce  Curan. 
Lewis  Glyn  Cothi  speaks  of 


"  Dyrnfolau  of  the  combat,  made  of  steel." 
Dysgiar— A  spear.     From  tins  comes  the  term  dysgiawr 
(a  levelling  or  slicing),  used  by  Aneurin  in  the  fol- 
lowing line  of  the  Gododin  : — 

"  It  was  the  dysgiawr  (levelling)  of  privilege  to  kill  him  oa 
the  breach." 


EiDDOED— A  banner,  or  a  standard.     The  word  is  used 

by  Taliesin — 

"  Urien,  lord  of  the  cultivated  plain,  answered  again, 
If  there  be  a  meeting  because  of  kindred. 
We  will  hft  up  an  eiddoed  above  the  mountain." 

The  battle  of  Argoed  Llwyfan. 

"  Humble  and  trembling  that  saw  Llwyfenydd, 
With  a  conspicuous  eiddoed  in  the  second  place ; 
A  battle  in  the  ford  of  Alclyd,  a  battle  at  the  confluence." 

Ode  to  Urien. 

EiGRAU— Stockings  without  feet.  They  are  otherwise 
called  bacsau,  and  hosanau  pen  geist. 

EiRioNYN— A  border  ;  the  list  of  cloth  ;  the  edge  or  sel- 
vedge ;  any  border  set  on  for  ornament ;  a  ruffle. 

Em A  jewel ;  a  gem.     Some  of  the  heroes  of  Gododin 

were  decked  with  gems. 

"  The  warriors  marched  to  Gododin;  their  leader  laughed 
As  his  em  army  went  down  to  the  terrific  to'iV— Aneurin. 

Taliesin  speaks  of  a  wreath  of  ruddy  emau  (rubies)— 

"  Rhudd  em  fy  nghylchwy." — Cad  Goddeu. 

144  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

Enhudded — A  covering. 

"  Our  lord,  of  a  race  liberal  of  treasure, 
Comes  to  day  under  the  enhudded." 

Gr.  ah  Gweflyn,  a.d.  1400. 

Ergyrwaew — A  thrusting  spear ;  an  impelled,  or  flying 

"  A  vehement  ergyrwaew  before  his  shield." 

O.  Cyfeiliawg,  1160. 

EsGiD — Cor.  "  Esgiz."     A  shoe. 

"  Three  makers  of  golden  shoes,  of  the  isle  of  Britain ; 
Caswallawn  the  son  of  Beli,  when  he  went  as  far  as  Gascony 
to  obtain  Flur  the  daughter  of  Mygnach  Gorr,  who  had 
been  carried  thither  to  Caesar  the  Emperor,  by  one  called 
Mwrchan  the  Thief,  king  of  that  country,  and  friend  of  Julius 
Caesar,  and  Caswallawn  brought  her  back  to  the  isle  of 
Britain ;  Manawyddan  the  son  of  Llyr  Llediaith,  when  he  was 
as  far  as  Dyfed  laying  restrictions;-  Llew  Llaw  Gyffes,  when 
he  was  along  with  Gwydlon  the  son  of  Don,  seeking  a  name 
and  arms  from  Arianrod,  his  mother." — Triad  124. 

Manawyddan,  in  the  "  Mabinogion,"  bought  the 
leather  ready  dressed ;  and  he  caused  the  best  gold- 
smith in  the  town  to  make  clasps  for  the  shoes,  and 
to  gild  the  clasps.  See  Manawyddan  the  son  of  Llyr, 
p.  169.  Probably  mynawyd  (an  awl)  receives  its 
name  from  this  celebrated  shoemaker. 

According  to  the  Law^s  of  Hywel  Dda,  the  queen's 
handmaid  was  entitled  to  the  old  esgidiau  of  her  royal 
Ethy — A  spur.     The  first  chieftain  celebrated   in   the 

Gododin  wore  a  "  golden  ethy." 
Eurdalaeth — A  gold  fillet,  or  coronet. 


EuRDORCii — A  golden  collar,  being  an  ornament  of  dis- 
tinction worn  by  the  ancient  warriors  of  Britain. 

"  Of  those  who  went  to  Cattraeth,  being  eurdorchogion  (wearers 
of  the  golden  chain), 
Upon  the  message  of  Mynyddawg,  sovereign  of  the  people, 
There  came  not  honourably,  in  behalf  of  the  Brython, 
To  Gododin,  a  hero  from  afar,  superior  to  Cynon." 

"  Four-and-twenty  sons  I  have  had, 
Eurdorchawg  (wearing  the  golden  chain)  leaders  of  armies ; 
Gwen  was  the  best  of  them." — Llywarch  Hen, 

EuREM — A  golden  jewel. 

EuRFODRWY — A  gold  ring. 

EuRGORON — A  gold  crown. 

EuRLiN — The  raw  silk. 

EuRRWY — A  gold  ring. 

EuRYSGWYD — A  gold  sliicld.  Several  of  the  British 
chieftains  are  represented  as  wearing  gold  shields  in 
the  sixth  century.     Thus  Llywarch  Hen, — 

"  A  second  time  I  saw,  after  that  conflict, 
Aur  ysgwyd  on  the  shoulder  of  Urien." 

And  Aneurin,  speaking  of  Ceredig,  says  that — 

"  His  ysgwyd  aur  dazzled  the  field  of  battle." 


Ffal — The  heel  of  a  shoe. 
Ffaling — A  mantle  ;  a  cloak. 

"  Like  the  Irishman  for  the  ffaling. ^^ — Adage. 
"  Guto  made  a  cotton  ffaling." 

Guto  y  Glyn,  a.d.  1450. 

146  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

Ffedawg — ^An  apron.     The  word  is  evidently  a  con- 
traction of  arffedawg,  which  comes  from  arffed,  the  lap. 
Ffedawnen — A  neckcloth,  or  cravat. 
Ffil — A  quick  dart. 
Fflaw — A  dart ;  a  banner. 

"  A  bright  ^aw,  from  every  battle  obtaining  hostages." 

Cywrysedd  Gwynedd  a  Dehau. 

Ffon — A  staff,   or  stick ;  a  cudgel.     Ffon  ddwyhig,  a 

Ffonwaew — A  javelin. 
Ffunen — A  band  ;  a  lace  ;  a  riband  ;  a  head-band. 

"  Through  the  window  give  me  the  ffunen 
Of  thy  generous  mother,  to  cover  my  head." 

D.  ah  Edmwnt,  a.d.  1450. 

The  legal  value  of  a  ffunen  was  fourpence. — H.  Dda. 
Ffunenig — A  bandlet,  or  a  lace. 
Ffyd — Coverings,  or  garments. 

"  Envious  also,  divested  of  his  ffyd 
Is  the  bishop ;  miserable  the  reflection." 

Dr.  S.  Cent,  1420-1470. 


Gaflach — A  barbed  or  bearded  spear.  Peredur  struck 
a  knight  "  with  a  sharp  pointed  gaflach,  and  it  hit  him 
in  the  eye,  and  came  out  at  the  back  of  his  neck,  so 
that  he  instantly  fell  down  lifeless." — Peredur  ab 
Efrawg.  This  weapon  however  seems  to  have  been 
more  peculiar  to  the  Irish,  who  were  hence  denomi- 
nated Gwyddyl  gaflachawg.     See  sub  voce  Glaif. 


Gardas  and  Gardys — A  garter ;  from  gar  the  shank,  or 

lower  part  of  the  thigh. 
Gefyn — A  fetter ;  a  gyve ;  a  manacle ;  a  shackle. 
Gem — A  gem  ;  a  jewel. 

"  There  is  a  broche  in  the  gem  of  his  girdle." 

Tudur  Aled,  a.d.  1490. 

See  also  Em. 
Glaif — A  crooked  sword  ;  a  scimitar ;  a  glaive.  Accor- 
ding to  the  Laws  of  Dyfnwal  Moelmiid,  "  the  three 
essentials  of  a  vassal  were  a  fireside,  a  glaif,  and  a 
trough." — Myv.  Arch.,  iii.,  p.  316.  But  the  glaif  was 
not  confined  to  vassals,  at  least  in  more  recent  times, 
for  w^e  have  Einiawn  ab  Madawg  Rhahawd,  1230- 
1270,  thus  speaking  of  Gruff'ydd  ab  Llywelyn  : — 

"  Usual  to  thee  to  have  the  red  and  dashing  glaif  over  the 
mane  of  the  steed." — Myv.  Arch.,  '\.,  p.  392. 

The  Gwyneddians,  or  men  of  North  Wales,  who  fought 
under  GruflTydd  ab  Cynan,  were  distinguished  for  their 
use  of  the  glaif  and  tarian,  as  appears  from  the  fol- 
lowing extract : — 

"  The  kings,  therefore,  began  to  retreat,  when  they  beheld 
the  multitude  of  victorious  bands,  and  the  camps  of  King 
Gruffydd,  and  his  banners  displayed  against  them,  and  the 
men  of  Denmark  with  their  two-edged  axes,  and  the  dart- 
bearing  Gwyddelians  with  their  iron  balls  full  of  spikes,  and 
the  Gwyneddians  gleifiawc  (with  scimitars)  and  shield-bearing." 
— Myv.  Arch.,  ii.,  p.  593. 

Glain — A  jewel;  a  bead.  Glain  nod,  a  prime  jewel. 
Glain  nadron,  transparent  stones,  or  adder  stones, 
worn  by  the  different  orders  of  bards,  each  having  its 
appropriate  colour ;    the  blue  ones  belonged  to  the 

148  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

presiding  Bards,  the  white  to  the  Druids,  the  green 
to  the  Ovates,  and  the  three  colours  blended  to  the 
disciples.  Pliny  believed  them  to  have  been  produced 
by  the  blowing  of  snakes.  The  truth  seems  to  be, 
however,  that  they  were  glass  beads,  formed  by  the 
fusion  of  sand  and  natron  by  means  of  the  blowpipe, 
which  in  shape  resembled  a  serpent.  This  latter  cir- 
cumstance, together  with  the  close  agreement  in  sound 
between  natron  and  nadron  evidently  occasioned  the 
mistake  as  to  their  production  and  real  nature. 
Glasgaen — A  blue  covering,  or  armour.  As  early  as 
the  time  of  Julius  Csesar  the  Britons  knew  how  to 
dye  blue;  and  it  is  supposed  from  the  term  glastenneu, 
as  applied  to  the  holm,  or  scarlet-oak,  that  the  oak 
dust  and  apple  formed  the  colouring  material  to  which 
Csesar  applied  the  term  glastum. 

"  Who  is  the  youth  that  wears  the  glasgaen  ; 
What  hero  is  he  that  proudly  leads  the  wayi*" 

Elegy  on  Llewelyn  ap  Madawg, 
A.D.  1290-1340. 

Gleindorch — A  circlet  of  beads  ;  a  bead  necklace. 
GoDRE — A  skirt,  border,  or  edge. 
GoDRWY — A  wreath ;  a  chain. 

"  Adorned  with  a  wreath  was  the  leader,  the  wolf  of  the  holme. 
Amber  beads  godrwyawr  (in  ringlets)  encircled  his  temples." 


GoL — A  covering. 

"  The  opposing  party  reply,  claiming  a  contrary  turn, 
The  same  is  Rhodri,  liberal  of  golodd." 

Gwalchmai,  1150-1190. 

GoLOED — A  covering ;  a  vestment. 


"  GruffycUl  of  a  fiery  disposition, 
And  the  bold  frame  of  llywel  with  a  conspicuous  goloed, 
And  for  whom  I  bear  the  longest  affection." — Id. 

GoRBAis — Upper  coat. 

GoRDUDD — All  outer  covering. 

GoRDUDDED — All  ovcr  covcr. 

GoRDD-DORCH— A  collar;  a  chain,  or  torque  for  the  neck. 

"  Eudaf,  as  seen  by  Maxen  Wledig  in  his  Dream,  had  a 
golden  gordd-dorch  about  his  xieoky—MaUnogi. 

GoRTHORCii— A  superior  wreath;  a  torque;  a  collar. 
Myrddin  Wyllt  wore  a  golden  gorthorch  in  that  battle 
where  his  patron  Gwenddoleu  fell. 

"  In  the  battle  of  Arderydd  of  gold  was  my  gorthorch." 

Myrddin  530-600. 

GoRWisG — An  outer  garment. 

GoTOEW— A  spur.     Llywarch  Hen  speaks  with  pride  of 
one  of  his  sons  as  wearing  golden  gotoeiv. 

"  Whilst  I  was  of  the  age  of  yonder  youth. 
That  wears  the  golden  ottoew, 
It  was  with  velocity  I  pushed  the  spear." 

Elegy  on  Old  Age. 

Gra— The  down,  nap,  or  frieze  of  cloth ;  cloth  with  nap 

upon  it. 

The  bed  which  the  maiden  in  the  "  Lady  of  the 

Fountain"  prepared  for  Owain,  "was  meet  for  Arthur 

himself;   it  was  of  scarlet,  and  gra,  and  satin,  and 

sendall,  and  fine  linen." — P.  57. 
Grain— A  ring.      Grain-fgs,  the  ring-finger. 
GwAEDLAiN— A  bloody   blade.     One  of  the   heroes   of 


150  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

"  Gwyalfain  the  son  of  Eilydd  wielded  a  gwaedlain." 


GwAEDLEN — A  blood  Veil ;  a  bloody  veil. 

"  He  was  seen — 
With  a  gwaedlen  conspicuous  round  his  head, 
And  there  was  blood  and  food  for  crows, 
And  the  raven  on  the  corpse. 
And  the  foes  were  of  hope  bereft." 

LI.  P.  Moch  to  Llywelyn  I. 

GwAEG — A  fibula ;  a  clasp  ;  a  buckle ;  the  tongue  of  a 
buckle.  Cynon,  narrating  an  adventure  in  the  "  Lady 
of  the  Fountain,"  says, — • 

"  I  approached  the  castle,  and  there  I  beheld  two  youths, 
with  yellow  curling  hair,  each  with  a  frontlet  of  gold  upon  his 
head,  and  clad  in  a  garment  of  yellow  satin ;  and  they  had 
gold  gwaegau  upon  their  insteps." — P.  41. 

GwAELL — A  lance.  A  knight  in  the  "  Dream  of  Rhon- 
abwy"  had  "  in  his  hand  a  blue-shafted  gwaell,  but 
from  the  haft  to  the  point  it  was  stained  crimson-red 
with  the  blood  of  the  ravens  and  their  plumage." — 
P.  411. 

GwAEW — A  sf)ear,  lance,  or  pike ;  a  javelin.  Also  the 
rod  of  the  apparitor,  which  he  used  in  summoning 
j)ersons  to  appear. 

According  to  the  Laws  of  Dyfnwal  Moelmud,  the 
gwaew  was  one  of  "  three  legal  weapons"  which  it  was 
required  of  every  head  of  family  to  provide  himself 
with.  See  Arf.  The  gwaew  head  was  one  of  the 
three  things  for  which  the  court  smith  was  to  receive 
payment.  The  value  of  the  givaew  in  Hywel  Dda's 
Code  was  fourpence. — Myv.   Arch.,  iii.,  423.      The 


length  of  the  apparitor's  gwaew  was  to  be  tliree  cubits  ; 

two  of  which  were  to  be  behind,  and  one  before  him. — 

Ihid.,  p.  374. 
GwAEWFFON — A  javeHn.     Same  as  ffonwaew. 
GwAEWLORF — The  staff  or  shaft  of  a  lance. 

"  Khys,  the  best  son  of  the  champion  of  Mon, 
With  the  hasty  gioaeiclorf,  of  Llywelyn's  race." 

T.  AM. 

GwAEWSAETH — A  dart,  or  javelin. 

GwAiN — A  scabbard  ;  a  sheath.  In  the  "  Dream  of 
Rhonabwy"  we  read  of  a  page  who  "  bore  a  heavy 
three-edged  sword  with  a  golden  hilt,  in  a  gwain  of 
black  leather  tipped  with  fine  gold." — P.  407.  Also, 
of  another,  who  had  "  in  his  hand  a  huge,  heavy, 
three-edged  sword,  with  a  gicain  of  red  deer  hide, 
tipped  with  gold." — P.  408.  Again,  of  one  who  "  had 
upon  his  thigh  a  large  gold-hilted  one-edged  sword, 
in  a  gwain  of  light  blue,  and  tipped  with  Spanish 
laton." — P.  411.  The  gwain  of  another  was  of  "  red 
cut  leather." — P.  412.  Some  gweiniau  were  made  of 
wood.  Kai  addressed  Gwrnach  the  giant  in  "Kilhwch 
and  Olwen,"  after  this  manner  : — 

"  It  is  thy  gwain  that  hath  rusted  thy  sword  ;  give  it  to  me, 
that  I  may  take  out  the  wooden  sides  of  it,  and  put  in  new 
ones."— P.  295. 

GwALC — The  cock  of  a  hat.     Het  walciaivg,  a  cocked 


"  When  the  men  shall  be  walciaivg, 
And  the  women  high  crested, 
And  the  youths  with  flaunting  wings 
And  light  steps,  will  all  this  be." 

Gronw  Ddu,  1400. 

152  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

GwALD — A  hem  ;  a  welt.      Gwald  esgid,  a  shoe  welt. 

GwALDAS  and  Gwaltes — Idem. 

GwALLT — The  hair  of  the  head.  The  Bards  and  Druids 
in  ancient  times  wore  their  hair  short. — James'  Patri- 
archal Religion,  p.  75.  With  the  people  it  was 
otherwise,  "  capilloque  sunt  promisso,"  says  Caesar, — 
De  Bel.  Gal.,  v.  Tacitus  describes  the  Silurians  as 
having,  for  the  most  part,  curly  hair, — "  torti  ple- 
rumque  crines."  Taliesin  speaks  of  the  people  of 
Gwent,  in  the  sixth  century,  as  being  long-haired, 
"  gwallthirion." 

"  Greatly  fearful  the  perjury 
Of  the  Gwenhwys  with  the  long  hair." 

Giraldus  Cambrensis  says  of  the  Welsh  in  the  twelfth 
century,  that  the  men  and  women  cut  their  hair  close 
round  to  the  ears  and  eyes.  In  the  succeeding  cen- 
tury, however,  the  fashion  was  altered  ;  for  we  are 
informed  that  Dafydd  ab  Gwilym,  and  the  young 
men  of  his  day,  wore  their  hair  long.  In  the  eighth 
century,  it  was  the  custom  of  people  of  consideration 
to  have  their  children's  hair  cut  the  first  time  by 
persons  for  whom  they  had  a  particular  honour  and 
esteem,  who,  in  virtue  of  this  ceremony,  were  reputed 
a  sort  of  spiritual  parents,  or  godfathers  to  them.  In 
the  Mabinogi  of  "  Kilhwch  and  Olwen,"  this  same 
custom  appears.  "  Arthur  is  thy  cousin,"  said  Kilydd 
to  his  son ;  "  go,  therefore,  unto  Arthur,  to  cut  thy 
gwallt,  and  ask  this  of  him  as  a  boon." — P.  252.  It 
would  seem  from  the  Mabinogion  that  gwallt  of  a 
yellow  colour  was  the  favourite  in  mediaeval  times. 
The  Early  British   Ecclesiastics  shaved  their  hair 


from  ear  to  ear  across  tlie  front  of  the  head,  -which 
fashion  tlicy  probably  borrowed  from  the  garland  and 
tiara  of  the  Druids,  and  not,  as  was  imputed  to  them 
by  the  Romanists,  from  Simon  Magus. — Eccles.  Ant. 
of  the  Cymry,  p.  310. 

GwASGAWD — A  waistcoat. 

GwASGRWYM — A  bandage  ;  a  girdle. 

GwDDWGEN — A  neckcloth  ;  a  cravat. 

GwE — A  web  of  cloth. 

GwEFR — Amber.  Amber  beads  were  borne  by  military 
chieftains  in  the  sixth  century.     See  Godricy. 

GwENTAS — A  high  shoe ;  a  buskin.  In  the  "  Lady  of 
the  Fountain"  a  person  is  described  as  having  "  on  his 
feet  two  gicentasau  of  variegated  leather,  fastened  by 
two  bosses  of  gold." — P.  42.  Two  youths  seen  by 
Maxen  Wledig  in  his  Dream,  "had  on  their  feet 
gwentasau  of  new  Cordova  leather,  fastened  by  slides 
of  o'old." — P.  279.  The  legal  value  oi  gwentasau  was 
one  penny. — Myv.  Arch.,  iii.,  p.  424. 

GwENWiSG — A  white  garment ;  a  surplice. 

"  Clad  in  a  shroudy  wenwisg." 

D.  ab  Gwilym,  1400. 

GwiSG — A  garment ;  apparel ;  dress. 
GwisGAD — Habiliment. 
GwLANEN — A  flannel. 
GwRDDWAEW — A  javelin. 
GwRDDYN — A  dart;  a  javelin. 

"  Braint  Hir  came  amongst  a  group  of  the  mendicants,  in 
the  place  where  the  diviner  was  haranguing  them;  and  without 
any  hesitation,  when  he  got  an  opportunity  for  his  aim,  he 
lifted  a  gwrddyn,  and  wounded  the  diviner." — Gr.  ah  Arthur. 

154  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

GwREGYS — A  girdle.     So  in  Cor.  Arm.  "  Gouris." 

Helen  the  daughter  of  Eudaf,  as  seen  by  Maxen  in 
his  Dream,  had  a  "  givregys  of  ruddy  gold  around  her." 
— Dream  of  Maxen  Wledig,  p.  280.  A  knight  in  the 
"  Dream  of  Rhonabwy"  had  "  a  sword,  the  gwregys  or 
belt  of  which  was  of  dark  green  leather  with  golden 
slides  and  a  clasp  of  ivory  upon  it,  and  a  buckle  of  jet 
black  upon  the  clasp." — P.  411. 

A  gwregys  of  gold  or  silver  was,  according  to  the 

Laws  of  Hy wel  Dda,  to  be  appraised ;  if  not  of  those 

materials,  its  value  was  one  penny.    A  trousers  gwregys 

is  likewise  estimated  at  one  penny. 

GwRTHFACH — The  beard  or  returning  point  of  a  weapon. 

GwRYDD — A  wreath 

"  An  angel's  covering  of  yellow  hair, 
In  a  gwrydd  of  gold  round  the  maid's  shoulder." 

jD.  ah  Gwilym. 


Haen — A  plait,  or  fold. 

"  One  haen  is  not  shelter  enough, 
Without  another  haen  of  stiff'  hairs  like  arrow-points." 

lolo  Goch. 

Haiarnblu — The  iron  scales  used  in  armour.     Lit.  iron 

Haiarngaen— A  covering  of  iron  ;  iron  armour. 
"  Does  any  one  ask — Concerns  it  not  men, 
Ere  the  haiarngaen  be  reddened, 
What  youth  is  he  that  wears  the  blue  armour, 
What  hero  is  the  haughty  one  in  front?" 

Llywarch  Llaety,  1290-1340. 


Hatr,  Hatriad — A  covering. 

Hed — A  hat. 

Helm — A  helmet.  The  following  descriptions  of  a  helm 
occur  in  the  "Dream  of  Rhonabwy  :" — ^^  A  helm  of 
gold,  set  with  precious  stones  of  great  virtue,  and  at 
the  top  of  the  helm  the  image  of  a  flame-coloured 
leopard,  with  two  ruby-red  stones  in  its  head." — P. 
411.  "A  golden  helm,  wherein  were  set  sapphire 
stones  of  great  virtue ;  and  at  the  top  of  the  helm  the 
figure  of  a  flame-coloured  lion,  with  a  fiery-red  tongue, 
issuing  above  a  foot  from  his  mouth,  and  with  vene- 
mous  eyes,  crimson-red,  in  his  head." — P.  412,  "A 
bright  helm  of  yellow  laton,  with  sparkling  stones  of 
crystal  in  it,  and  at  the  crest  of  the  helm  the  figure  of 
a  griffin,  with  a  stone  of  many  virtues  in  its  head." — 
P.  414. 

It  would  appear  that  the  helm  is  not  identical  with 
the  penffestin,  for  it  is  said  that  "  Peredur  attacked  a 
sorceress,  and  struck  her  upon  the  head  with  his  sword, 
so  that  he  flattened  her  hebn  and  her  penffestin  like  a 
dish  upon  her  head," — (Peredur  ah  Efraivg,  p.  323)  ; 
and  that  a  knight  "  overthrew  Kai,  and  struck  him  with 
the  head  of  his  lance  in  the  forehead,  so  that  it  broke 
his  helm  and  \he  penffestin,''' — {Lady  of  the  Fountain, 
p.  67),  as  if  they  were  two  distinct  things. 

Hem — A  hem,  or  border. 

Heulrod — A  sun  cap  ;  a  cap  to  keep  off"  the  sun. 

"  I  have  a  heulrod  of  the  skin  of  a  fish ;  with  that  on  my 
head  I  will  stand  before  Hu,  when  he  is  dining;  and  I  will 
eat  with  him,  and  I  will  drink,  without  any  notice  being  taken 
of  me." — H.  Car.  Mag.     Mahinogion. 


Hod — A  hood,  or  cap. 

HoNFAS — A  chopping  knife.  Its  value  was  one  penny. 
— Myv.  Arch.,  iii.,  424. 

HoNFFEST — A  tunic.  It  was  an  expensive  article  of  dress, 
being  valued  at  twenty-four  pence. 

Hos,  HosAN — A  hose,  or  a  stocking.  We  read  in  the 
"  Dream  of  Rhonabwy"  of  "  two  hosan  of  thin  greenish 
yellow  cloth,"  p.  406 ;  also,  of  "  two  hosan  of  fine 
white  buckram,"  p.  408  ;  and  again,  of  "  two  hosan  of 
fine  Totness,"  p.  409.  Hosanau  mawr  are  legally 
valued  at  eightpence.  The  groom  of  the  reign  was 
entitled  to  the  king's  old  hosanau. — Myv.  Arch.,  iii., 
p.  373. 

HosANLAWDR — A  pair  of  pantaloons. 

HoTAN,  HoTYN — A  Cap.  The  word  occurs  in  "  Liber 
Landavensis."  Hotyn  esgid,  the  part  of  a  shoe  clos- 
ing over  the  instep. 

HuAL — A  fetter,  gyve,  or  shackle.     So  in  Arm. 

"  The  three  aurhualogion  (golden  banded  chiefs)  of  the  isle 
of  Britain  :  Rhiwallon  Wallt  Banhadlen,  Rliun  the  son  of 
Maelgwn,  and  Cadwaladr  the  Blessed ;  they  were  so  called 
because  it  was  granted  to  them  to  wear  bands  of  gold  round 
their  arms,  knees,  and  necks,  and  were  therefore  invested  with 
regal  privilege  in  every  country  and  dominion  in  Britain." — 
Triad  28. 

Taliesin  speaks  of  "  the  steel  blades,  mead,  violence, 
and  hualau  of  the  men  of  Cattraeth." — Myv.  Arch., 
i.,  p.  21. 

In  the  Laws  an  iron  hual  is  valued  at  one  penny ; 
a  wooden  hual  at  a  farthing. — Myv.  Arch.,  iii.,  p.  424. 
Hug — A  loose  coat,  or  cloak. 


"  Reynard,  I  pray  thee,  stop  the  leap, 
And  tear  a  corner  of  the  golden  hugT 

It.  G.  Eryri  concerning  the  Peacock, 
A.D.  1420. 

HuGAN  and  Hugyn,  dim. — Idem. 
HwsAN — A  hood. 
Hychwaew — A  pushing  spear. 

"  When  his  sight  was  darkened  the  monster  became  furious ; 
and  as  the  wild  boar  rushes  upon  the  hychwaew  of  the  hunts- 
man, so  did  he  rush  at  Arthur  upon  the  point  of  the  sword." 
—  Gr.  ah  Arthur. 


Irai — A  sharp  point;  a  goad. 

"  Samgar — smote  of  the  Philistines  six  hundred  men  with 
an  ox  irai." — Judges,  iii.,  31. 

IsARN — A  bill,   scythe,   or  sickle ;    a   long   hatchet ;    a 

"  Cutting  off  her  head — 
With  an  isarn  at  one  stroke." — D.  ab  Gwilym. 


Llachbren — A  cudgel.  Cudgelling  is  the  common  di- 
version among  the  people  of  Caermartlienshire,  hence 
they  are  nicknamed  Llachwyr,  or  cudgellers. 

Llaesbais — A  loose  trailing  coat.  In  "  Ymarwar  LIudd," 
{Myv.  Arch.,  i.,  p.  76,)  mention  is  made  of  a  people 


"  amlaes  eu  peisiau"  (in  long  robes)  as  invaders  of  the 
isle  of  Britain. 

"  Men  from  a  country  in  Asia,  and  the  region  of  Capys ; 
A  people  of  iniquitous  design :  the  land  is  not  known 
That  was  their  mother.    They  made  a  devious  course  by  sea. 
Amlaes  eu  peisiau,  who  can  equal  them  ?  " 

Llafn — A  blade ;  a  slide. 

"  They  had  daggers  with  llafneu  (blades)  of  gold,  and  with 
hilts  of  the  bone  of  the  whale." — Lady  of  the  Fountain,  p.  42. 

"  Buskins  of  new  cordovan  leather  on  their  feet,  fastened 
by  llafneu  (slides)  of  red  gold." — Dream  of  Maxen  Wledig,  p. 


Llafnawr — Aggr.  Bladed  weapons ;  spears  used  by 
the  Britons,  about  seven  feet  long,  nearly  three  of 
which  length  was  a  blade,  like  that  of  a  sword.  This 
weapon  is  frequently  mentioned  by  the  earliest  bards ; 
for  instance,  Taliesin  observes, — 

"  Exalted  is  Rheged  of  warlike  chiefs ; 
They  brandished  the  llafnawr  of  battle, 
Under  the  round  shield  of  the  shout. 
The  light  of  which  displayed  a  pale  corpse." 

Bronze   llafnawr  were  used  in  Wales  as  late  as  the 
time  of  Owain  Glyndwr,  as  several  of  them  have  been 
found  in  places  where  he  fought  his  battles. 
Llain — A  blade  ;  a  sword. 

"  Heroic  suffering,  the  voice  of  pain,  and  a  blue  llain  on  the 
Will  be  heard  of  In  Britain."— Cyw^fcfeZu;,  1150-1200. 

Llarp — A  shred  ;  a  rag ;  a  clout. 

Llath — A  rod.     Eudaf  was  seen  by  Maxen  Wledig  in 


his  Dream  "  with  a  chessboard  of  gold  before  him,  and 
a  llath  of  gold,  and  a  steel  file  in  his  hand." — P.  279. 

Llawban — Felt.     Brethyn  llaivban,  felt  cloth. 

Llawdryfer — A  hand  harpoon  ;  a  hand  dart. 

"  The  foam  will  guard  thee  against  the  llawdryfer  of  a  river 
thief." — D.  ill)  Gwilym  to  the  Salmon. 

Llawdr — Trowse,  trowsers,  or  pantaloons  ;  breeches.  In 
the  "  Lady  of  the  Fountain,"  Cynon  observes  of  six 
damsels  whom  he  met  with  at  a  certain  castle  : — ^"  They 
took  off  my  soiled  garments,  and  placed  others  upon 
me  ;  namely,  an  under  vest,  and  a  llawd?'  of  fine  linen, 
and  a  robe,  and  a  surcoat,  and  a  mantle  of  yellow 
satin,  with  a  broad  gold  band  upon  the  mantle." — P. 
43.  The  llawdr  is  generally  joined  with  the  crys,  or 
under  vest ;  and,  in  the  Laws  of  Hy  wel  Dda,  they  are 
valued  together  at  twenty-four  pence,  a  high  price. — 
(Myv.  Arch.,  iii.,  p.  424.)  In  the  Triadic  Laws,  it  is 
enjoined  that  a  knife,  a  sword,  and  a  llawdr,  if  lost  in 
behalf  of  a  house  should  not  be  paid  for.  — Wyv.  Arch., 
iii.,  p.  323. 

The  apparitor  was  entitled  at  the  assize  in  November 
to  a  new  coat,  under  vest,  and  a  llawdr,  but  there  was 
to  be  no  shalloon  in  his  llawdr.  His  clothes  were  to 
reach  to  the  tie  of  the  latter  garment. — P.  374. 

In  Cornish  lodr  (pi.  lydraiC)  means  stockings ;  "  and 
this  has  happened,"  saith  E.  Lhwyd,  "  because  the 
old  trouse  was  breeches  and  stockings  in  one  garment, 
which  is  still  retained  in  the  Highlands  of  Scotland, 
and  in  several  other  countries."  Arm.,  lowzr  and 
laurec ;  and  lawrega,  or  laureaff,  to  put  on  one's 

160  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

Llawes — A  sleeve;  from  llaw,  a  hand. 

Llawfwyall — A  hand  hatchet ;  valued  in  the  Laws  at 
one  penny. 

Llen — A  veil,  a  plaid,  or  a  scarf.  Giraldus  Cambrensis 
says  that  the  Welsh  women  of  his  day  covered  their 
heads  with  a  large  white  veil,  folded  together  in  the 
form  of  a  crown,  after  the  manner  of  the  Parthians. 
In  the  "  Dream  of  Rhonabwy,"  we  read  of  a  youth 
who  had  "a  llen  (a  scarf)  with  yellow  borders. — 
P.  376.  Also  of  "  a  troop,  whereof  every  one  of  the 
men  had  a  llen  of  white  satin,  with  jet  black  borders." 
—P.  403. 

Llengel — A  veil.  Gruffydd  ab  Meredydd,  a.d.  1310- 
1360,  referring  to  the  death  of  Tudur  ap  Goronwy, 
says, — 

"  Altogether  sad  the  separation  ! 
A  silent  covering  llengel 
Hides  the  pensive  cheek." 

Mrjv.  Arch.,  i.,  p.  438. 

Llian — A  web ;  linen-cloth.    Llian  cr'i,  unbleached  cloth ; 

llian  hras,  coarse  cloth  ;   llian  main,  fine  linen  ;   llian 

hrith,  check-cloth  ;   llian  amdo,  a  shroud  cloth. 

Several  of  the  officers  of  the  court  were,  by  Hywel 

Dda's  Laws,  entitled  to  their  llian  from  the  king  or 

the  queen. 
Llieinwisg — A  linen  garment.     The  same  observation 

will  apply  here. 
Llinon — A  shaft. 

"  Joy  to  the  arm,  and  the  hard  llinon ; 
Let  him  kill ;  let  him  silence  the  motley  rabble." 

T.  Penllyn,  a.d.  1460. 


Llinyn — A  string. 

Cynon,  in  the  "Lady  of  the  Fountain,"  describes  two 
youths,  who  had  each  "  an  ivory  bow,  with  llinynau 
made  of  the  sinews  of  the  stag." — P.  42. 
Llodryn — Dim.  of  Llawdr. 
Llogell — A  pocket. 
Llop — A  buskin  ;  a  boot. 
Llopan — A  sort  of  high  shoe  ;  a  sock. 

Pwyll,  in  the  guise  of  a  mendicant,  "  was  clad  in 
coarse  and  ragged  garments,  and  wore  large  llopanau 
upon  his  feet." — Pwyll  P.  of  Dyved,  p.  ^^. 

In  an  old  medical  Avork  it  is  stated  that  "  the  ashes 
of  old  llopanau  are  good  against  proud  flesh." 
Llost — A  spear;  a  lance  ;  a  javelin. 
Lluchwaew — A  missive  dart ;  a  javelin. 

Yspyddaden  Penkawr  threw  three  poisoned  lluch- 
waew after  the  messengers  that  asked  his  daughter 
Olwen  for  Kilhwch  the  son  of  Kilydd. — Kilhwch  and 
Olwen,  p.  277. 
Llumman — A  flag,  ensign,  banner  or  standard. 

The  word  is  used  by  Golyddan,  560-630,  in  his 
"  Destiny  of  Britain," 

"  The  sacred  llumman  of  Dewi  will  they  raise." 

Myv.  Arch.,  i.,  p.  158. 

Llummanbren — The  staff"  of  a  banner,  or  of  a  standard. 

Llummanig — A  banderol. 

Lluryg — A  lorica  ;  a  brigandine ;  a  coat  of  mail.  In 
the  battle  fought  under  Boadicea,  the  Britons,  we  are 
told,  had  no  loricse. — Hancs  Cymru,  p.  85.  They  used 
the  same,  however,  in  the  sixth  century,  for  Aneurin 
thus  describes  the  heroes  of  Gododin  : — 


"The  heroes  went  to  Cattraeth  with  marshalled  array  and 

shout  of  war, 
With  powerful  steeds,  and  dark  brown  harness,  and  with 

With  uplifted  javelins,  and  piercing  lances, 
With  glittering  Uuri/gau,  and  with  swords." 

The  word  also  occurs  in  the  poems  of  Llywarch  Hen 
and  Taliesin.     According  to  Hywel  Dda's  Laws  the 
lluryg  was  to  be  valued  or  appraised  upon   oath. — 
Myv.  Arch.,  iii.,  423. 
Llymwydden — A  wooden  spear. 


Maenfan — The  beasil  of  a  ring. 
Malen — A  shield. 

"  A  golden  apple  on  the  convex  of  the  malen, 
And  then  a  spike  on  the  top." 

T.  AM,  A.D.  1490,  to  a  Buckler. 

Manawyd — ^The  staff  of  a  banner,  or  standard. 

"  There  was  a  confident  impelling  forward  of  the  manawyd 
of  the  variegated  standard." — Gododin. 

Maneg — A  glove,  probably  of  Roman  origin. 

"  I  will  not  wear  any  strait  menyg 
Made  of  sheep  skin." — D.  ah  Gwilym. 

Mantell — A   mantle,    or   cloak.     It   was   proverbially 
regarded  as  the  best  covering. 

"  Goreu  un  tudded  mantell.'" 
Cynon,  in  the  "  Lady  of  the  Fountain,"  saw  "  a 


man  in  the  prime  of  life,  with  his  beard  newly  shorn, 
clad  in  a  robe  and  a  mantell  of  yellow  satin  ;  and 
round  the  top  of  his  mantell  was  a  band  of  gold  lace." 
—P.  42. 

In  the  time  of  Hywel  Dda,  the  chief  falconer  was 
entitled  to  the  mantell  in  which  the  king  rode  on  the 
three  princi})al  festivals.  A  mantell  of  a  dark  brown 
colour,  or  of  superfine  quality,  was  estimated  at  twenty- 
four  pence. — Myv.  Arch.,  iii.,  424. 
Marchawgwisg — A  riding  habit ;  a  riding  dress. 

"  Gwenhwyvar  and  all  her  women  were  joyful  at  her  coming, 
and  they  took  off  her  marchawgwisg,  and  placed  other  garments 
upon  her." — Geralnt  ah  Erhin,  129. 

Meilyndorch — A  sashoon.     From  meilwn,  the  small  of 

the  leg,  and  torch,  a  coil. 
Meilynwisg — Id.,  called  also  arfeilyn. 
MoDRWY — A  ring. 

"  Delightful  again  is  the  maid  with  a  modrwy." 

"  Bracelets  of  gold  were  upon  his  arms,  and  many  modrwyau 
upon  his  hands." — Dream  of  Maxen  Wledig,  p.  279. 

According  to  Hywel  Dda's  Laws  a  modrwy  was  to 
be  appraised  upon  oath. — Myv.  Arch.,  iii.,  p.  424. 

Moled — A  piece  of  cloth,  forming  a  part  of  a  woman's 
dress,  to  cover  the  head  and  shoulders ;  a  muffler ;  a 

MwGWD — A  mask,  a  vizard. 

"  Mead  will  pull  off  the  mwgwd" — Adage. 
"  In  vino  Veritas." 

MwN — The  upper  part  of  the  shaft  of  a  weapon,  next  to 
the  head. 

164  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

"  Peredur  beheld  two  youths  enter  the  hall,  and  proceed  up 
to  the  chamber,  bearing  a  spear  of  mighty  size,  with  three 
streams  of  blood  flowing  from  the  mwn  to  the  ground." — 
— Peredur  ah  Efrawg. 

MwNDLWS — A  neck  ornament ;  a  necklace. 
MwNDORCH — A  collar  ;  a  wreath  for  the  neck. 
Mynwor — A  collar,  properly  of  draught  harness. 

"  Like  yellow  gold  round  the  foam  of  the  sea, 
Are  the  delicate  tresses  over  her  mynwor." 

D.  ah  Gwilym  to  Morfyd(Vs  hair. 

Mynygldlws — A  neck  ornament. 
Mynygldorch — A  collar  or  wreath  for  the  neck. 
Mynyglwisg — A  neck -kerchief ;  a  neck-cloth. 
Myrierid — Pearls. 

"  The  spreading  of  my  songs  before  thee. 
Be  it  not  like  casting  myrierid  before  swine." 

LI  P.Moch,  1160-1220. 


Nais — A  band,  or  tie. 
Neisiad — A  kerchief. 


Oferdlws — A  vain  ornament,  or  jewel ;  a  jewel  merely 

"  The  judge  of  the  palace  claims  oferdlysau,  when  his  office 
is  pledged  to  him,  namely,  a  chessboard  of  whalebone  from 


the  king,  and  a  gold  ring  from  the  queen,  and  another  from 
the  domestic  bard  ;  and  these  oferdlysau  he  ought  neither  to 
give,  nor  to  sell  whilst  he  lives." — Welsh  Laws. 

Offerengrys — A  cope ;  a  sacerdotal  vestment. 


On,  Onen — A  spear  with  an  ashen  shaft.  There  is  very 
frequent  allusion  in  the  Welsh  poems  to  this  weapon  ; 
e.g.,  Llywarch  Hen  says — 

"  Let  the  gore  be  aptly  clotted  on  the  on." 

And  again, — 

"  When  Caranmael  put  on  the  corslet  of  Cynddylan, 
And  lifted  up  and  shook  his  onen, 
From  his  mouth  the  Frank  would  not  get  the  word  of  peace." 

And  later,  Cynddelw,  in  his  Elegy  on  Ithel   son  of 
Cadifor, — 

"  The  ruddy  onen  would  kill  from  his  grasping  hand." 
From  this  word  is  formed  ongyr,  an  aggregate  of  spears. 

"  Bold  in  slaughter,  the  swift  one  went  with  the  gieamings  of 
the  ongyr, 
The  eagle  of  magnificent  gift  in  the  moving  tents." 

Prydydd  Breuan,  1300-1360. 


Paeled — A  skull  cap. 

"  They  gave  one  another  blows  so  boldly  fierce,  so  frequent, 
and  so  severely  powerful,  that  their  helmets  were  pierced,  and 
their  paeledau  were  broken,  and  their  arms  were  shattered,  and 
the  light  of  their  eyes  was  darkened  by  sweat  and  blood." — 
Geraint  ah  Erhin,  p.  123. 

166  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

Pais — A  coat.  The  pais  formed  from  an  early  period 
one  of  the  principal  articles  of  a  person's  dress,  and  was 
of  various  materials,  colours  and  sizes.  In  "  Peredur 
ab  Efrawg',"  we  read  of  a  knight  with  an  "iron pais.'' — 
P.  243.  Kai  told  Gwalchmai  that  "  whilst  his  speech 
and  soft  words  lasted,  a  pais  of  thin  linen  would  be 
armour  sufficient  for  him." — P.  327.  Two  youths,  in 
the  "  Lady  of  the  Fountain,"  wore  each  a  "pais  of 
yellow  satin." — P.  3.  Taliesin  speaks  of  a  British  tribe 
that  wore  "  long  peisiau." — Mt/v.  Arch.,  i.,,76.  And 
in  the  "  Dream  of  Rhonabwy"  we  read  of  a  young- 
man  "  clad  in  a  pais  of  yellow  satin,  falling  as  low  as 
the  small  of  his  leg,  and  embroidered  with  threads  of 
red  silk."— P.  408.  By  the  Laws  of  Hywel  Dda,  the 
apparitor  of  the  court  was  entitled  at  tlie  November 
assize  to  a  new  pais,  under-vest,  and  trousers. — Myv. 
Arch.,  iii.,  374. 

Paladr — A  spear-staff;  the  shaft  of  a  javelin.  Accor- 
ding to  the  Triadic  Laws,  "  pren  peleidr,"  or  a  tree 
whereof  to  form  spear  shafts  in  the  king's  cause,  was 
regarded  as  one  of  "  the  three  free  trees  in  the  royal 
forest." — Mi/v.  Arch.,  iii.,  p.  322.  The  paladr  is 
much  spoken  of  in  the  sixth  century,  e.  g.,  Aneurin 
thus  writes, — 

"  The  heroes  marched  to  Cattraeth  with  marshalled  array  and 

shout  of  war, 
With  powerful  steeds,  and  dark  brown  harness,  and  with 

With  uplifted  peleidyr,  and  piercing  lances." 

Sometimes  a  flag  was  attached  to  the  point  of  the 
paladr.     Thus  we  read  in  the  "  Dream  of  Rlionabwy" 


of  a  youth  who  had  in  his  hand  "  a  mighty  paladr, 
speckled  yellow,  with  a  newly  sharpened  head  ;  and 
upon  the  paladi'  a  banner  displayed." — P.  409. 
Paled — A  shaft ;  a  javelin  ;    a  dart.      Givare  paled,  a 
tilting  match. 

"  After  we  had  completed  every  thing  which  appertained  to 
the  gods,  there  happened  between  two  nephews  a  dispute  about 
the  victory  at  a  gware  paled.'' — Gr.  ab  Arthur. 

Pali — Satin,  or  velvet ;  but  its  exact  signification  is  not 
quite  obvious,  as  it  sometimes  seems  to  imply  the  one, 
and  sometimes  the  other,  according  to  the  rank  of  the 
persons  who  are  represented  as  wearing  it.  There  is 
mention  in  the  Mabinogion  of  Pali  caeraicg,  which  is 
translated  "  diapered  satin  ;"  also  of  pali  mehjngocJi, 
"  3^ellow  red  satin,"  which  seems  to  imply  that  the 
mediaeval  weavers  of  Britain  were  acquainted  with  the 
art  of  making  what  are  usually  called  shot  silks,  or 
silks  of  two  colours  predominating  interchangeably. 

Pall — A  mantle ;  a  pall.     Owain  Cyfeiliog  wore  a 
"  Pall  cochr—Myv.  ArcJi.,  l,  p.  222. 

Pan — Fur ;  ermine.  One  of  the  heroes  of  Gododin 

"  Golden  spurs  and  pan." 
Par — A  spear. 

"  Splintered  shields  about  the  ground  he  left, 
And  parau  of  awful  tearing  did  he  hew  down." 


Parfaes — A  shield. 

Pelyd — The  legs  of  stockings  with  the  feet  cut  off ;  also 
called  hacsau. 

168  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

Penawr — A  headpiece ;  a  helmet. 

"  The  blades  gUttered  on  the  bright  penawr." 

Pendel — A  head  ornament,  or  chaplet. 

"  Brutus  put  a  pendel  of  vine  leaves  on  his  head." 

Brut  y  Brenhinoedd. 
Penffestin — A  helmet. 

"  Ffrollo  struck  Arthur  on  his  forehead,  so  that  the  sword 
was  blunted  on  the  rings  of  his  penffestin." — Gr.  db  Arthur. 

See  also  suh  voce  Helm. 
Penguwch — The  fore  part  of  any  head-covering ;  a  bon- 
net ;  a  cap. 

"  Owain  struck  the  knight  a  blow  through  his  helmet,  head- 
piece, and  the  crest  of  his  penguwch." — Lady  of  the  Fountain, 

"  A  yellow  penguwch  used  to  be  worn  by  a  woman  newly 
married." — Hen  Bdefodau. 

The  legal  value  of  a  penguwch  was  a  penny. — ]\fi/v. 

Arch.,  iii.,  p.  424. 
Penlliain — A  head-cloth.    It  was  valued  at  eightpence. 

— Hid. 
Penllinyn — A  head-band. 
Penon — A  pennant. 
Penre — A  woman's  coif  or  cowl,  or  hair-lace  to  truss  up 

the  hair. 
Penrwym — Id. 
Pensel — A  great  standard. 

"  The  choicest  token  with  the  Irish 
Are  yellow  and  red  in  the  front  of  onset ; 
Do  thou  consecrate  the  pensel  of  Llywelyn ; 
Do  thou  lead  them  on  with  these  two  colours." 

lolo  Goch  to  O.  Glyndwr. 


Penwisg — A  head-dress. 
Penwn — A  banner;  a  pennon. 
Perced — A  wrapper. 

"  A  covering  against  an  angry  storm ; 
An  Irish  perced  of  two  breadths." 

D.  LI.  ah  LI.  ah  Gruffydd, 
to  a  Mantle.     1480. 

PiCELL — A  dart ;  a  javelin. 
PiCFFOx — A  pike-staff. 
PiLAN — A  spear. 
PiLEN — A  fringe,  or  border. 
Pilwrn — A  dart. 

PiLYN — A  clout ;  a  rag  ;  a  piece  of  any  texture  used  as 
a  covering  or  garment.    Pilipi  gwddj\  a  neck-kerchief. 
PiLYNDAWD — A  covering,  habiliment,  garment,  or  vesture. 
PiLYS — A  covering  or  robe  made  of  skin ;  a  pelisse. 

"  Rhita  the  giant  made  a  'pilys  of  the  scalps  of  the  beards 
of  kings." — Gr.  ah  Arthur. 

PiLYSYN — A  robe ;  a  pelisse. 

Plethlinyn — A  plaited  cord,  or  bobbin. 

Plu,  Pluf,  Pluawr — Plumes  ;  feathers.  That  military- 
men,  as  early  as  the  sixth  century,  wore  feathers  of 
particular  colours  as  distinctive  badges,  is  evident  from 
the  testimony  of  the  poets  of  that  age.  Thus  Lly- 
warch  Heu  says  of  himself, — 

"  After  the  sleek  tractable  steeds,  and  garments  of  ruddy  hue, 
And  the  yellow  -pluawr, 
Slender  is  my  leg,  my  piercing  look  is  gone." 

And  Aneurin,  of  the  heroes  of  Gododin, — 

"  Redder  were  their  swords  than  their  pluawr." 


170  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

Pyrchwyn — The  crest  of  a  helmet.     It  was  to  be  ap- 
praised upon  oath. — Myv.  Arch.,  hi.,  423. 
Pyrgwyn — Id.     See  Penguwch. 


Rhac — The  wrest  of  a  cross-bow. 
Rhactal — A  frontlet;  a  forehead  cloth. 

"  I  beheld  two  youths  with  yellow  curling  hair,  each  with  a 
rhactal  of  gold  upon  his  head." — Lady  of  the  Fountain,  41. 

Rhagwisg — A  fore-garment ;  a  prior  dress. 
Rhaidd — A  spear. 
Rhain — Lances,  spears. 

"  Support  each  other  against  them  with  ruddy  rhain." 


Rhefawg — A  bandage. 

"  They  twisted  four  rods,  and  made  four  rhefawg  to  bind 
Oliver  with." — H.  Car.  Mag.     Mahinogion. 

Rheiddyn — A  dart.  In  the  Gododin,  war  seems  to  be 
personified  under  the  name  "mam  rheiddyn,"  the 
mother  of  the  lance. 

Rhestrawg — A  plaited  target,  or  buckler. 

Rhethren — A  pike  ;  a  lance.  Taliesin,  in  his  Ode  to 
Gwallawg,  says, — 

"  Splendid  his  commanding  rhethren." 

Rhodawg,  Rhodawr — A  chariot ;  a  shield.  The  ancient 
Britons  possessed  war  chariots  of  a  peculiar  construc- 
tion, having  scythes  attached  to  the  wheels,  calculated 
to  cause  no  inconsiderable  annoyance  to  the  enemy. 


Some  idea  may  be  had  of  the  force  in  chariots  which 
they  could  bring  into  the  field,  from  Ceesar's  account 
of  the  number  which  Cassivellaunus,  even  when  de- 
feated, was  able  to  retain  in  his  service.  "  Dimissis 
amplioribus  copiis,  millihus  circiter  qiiatuor  essedari- 
oriim  relictis." — Ccbs.  de  Bell.  Gall.,  1.  v.,  c.  19.  At 
what  time  the  use  of  these  martial  vehicles  was  discon- 
tinued we  cannot  tell.  Dr.  O.  Pughe  implies  that 
they  were  used  in  the  battle  of  Cattraeth,  translating 

"  Twll  tal  ei  rodawr," 
by  the  words  "  the  front  opening  of  his  chariot." 
Tliere  are  other  expressions  made  use  of  by  the  poets 
of  a  much  later  date,  which  convey  still  more  clearly 
the  idea  that  some  of  the  Welsh  chieftains  appeared  in 
a  chariot  on  the  field  of  battle.  Thus  Cynddelw 
observes  in  reference  to  Owain  CyfeiHog,  prince  of 
Powys,  1160-1197,— 

"  Ready  in  his  rhodawg  to  range  amid  armies." 

Myv.  Arch.,  i.,  p.  221. 

The  word  "rhodiaw,"  here  translated  to  range,  but 
which  means  literally  to  walk,  is  evidently  more  appli- 
cable to  a  chariot  than  to  a  shield.  Again,  Llywarch 
Llaetty,  1290-1340,  in  a  poem  addressed  to  Madog 
ab  Meredydd,  prince  of  Powys,  inquires  as  follows, — 
"  To  whom  belongs  the  rhodawg  of  the  crimson  face  of  the 
field  of  slaughter ; 

And  who  its  desolating  wolf  on  its  front ; 

Who  deals  wounds  above  the  white  prancing  steeds ; 

What  his  name,  whose  lot  is  so  glorious?" — P.  416. 

He  had  before  inquired  respecting  his  shield. 

The  chariot  was  called  Rhodawg,  or  Rhodawr,  from 

172  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

Rhod,  a  wheel ;  and  in  like  manner  the  term  was 
applied  to  a  shield,  on  account  of  its  orbed  or  circular 
shape.  A  shield  is  evidently  meant  in  such  passages 
as  the  following  : — 

"  The  brave  and  haughty  hero  with  a  notched  rliodawg." 

"  The  scattering  of  the  wolf  of  slaughter  with  the  golden- 
bossed  rhodawyT — LI.  P.  Mock. 

Rhon — A  pike,  or  lance. 

Rhuchen — A  coat ;  a  leathern  jerkin.     In  the  Mabinogi 

of  "  Kilhwch  and  Olwen"  there  is  mention  made  of 

"  A  swineherd  with  a  rhuchen  of  skin  about  him." 

Rhuddbar — A  ruddy  spear. 

Rhuwch — A  rough-fringed  mantle  or  garment.     Lly- 
warch  Hen  wore  one  : — 

"  Though  light  some  may  deem  my  rhuwch." 

According  to  the  Laws  of  Hywel  Dda,  a  free  tenant's 
rhuwch  was  valued  at  sixty  pence,  and  that  of  a  villain 
at  thirty  pence. — My  v.  Arch.,  iii.,  p.  424. 


Sachliain — Sackcloth. 
Sachwisg — Sackcloth  covering. 
Sae — A  kind  of  woollen  stuff,  say  : — 

"  A  robe  has  been  sent  to  thee, 
Beneath  the  leaves,  of  black  sae." — D  ah  Gwilym. 

Saeth — An  arrow.     According  to  the  old  Welsh  Laws, 
every  master  of  a  family  was  required  to  possess  a 


"  l)ow  with  twelve  saeth  in  a  quiver ;"  and  have  the 
the  same  in  readiness  against  "  the  attacks  of  a  foreign 
army,  and  of  strangers,  and  other  depredators."  Their 
legal  value  was  fourpence. 

It  is  not  very  clear  whether  the  tela,  which,  accor- 
ding to  Csesar,  the  Britons  used  in  their  first  engage- 
ment with  the  Romans, 

"  Alii  ab  latere  aperto,  in  universes  tela  conjiciebant." 

were  arrows,  or  some  other  missiles.  That  the  word, 
in  its  primary  acceptation,  referred  to  the  former,  is 
evident  from  the  Laws  of  Justinian  : — 

"  Telum  autem  [ut  Caius  noster  ex  interpretatione  legum 
duodecim  tabularum  scriptum  reliquit]  vulgo  quidem  id  appel- 
latur,  quod  ab  arcu  mittitur.  Sed  et  omne  significat  quod 
manu  cujusque  jacitur." 

In  the  "  Lady  of  the  Fountain"  we  read  of  two 
youths  whose  "  saethau  had  their  shafts  of  the  bone  of 
the  whale,  and  were  winged  with  peacock's  feathers." 
— P.  42.  In  the  tale  cited,  suh  voce  Bwa,  the  mes- 
senger from  the  court  of  North  AYales  expresses  his 
desire  to  have  "  a  bow  of  red  yew  in  his  hand,  ready 
bent,  with  a  tough,  tight  string,  and  a  straight  round 
shaft,  with  a  compass-rounded  nock,  and  long  slender 
feathers,  fastened  on  with  green  silk,  and  a  steel  head, 
heavy  and  thick,  and  an  inch  across,  of  a  green  blue 
temper,  that  would  draw  blood  out  of  a  weathercock." 

Giraldus  Cambrensis  states  that  the  people  of  Gwent 
excelled  as  archers,  and  he  gives  two  or  three  extra- 
ordinary examples  in  proof  of  his  assertion. 
Saffar — A  spike,  a  spear. 

174  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

"  They  will  tremble   at   their   rage,   serpents   v/ith  saffar  of 
reproof." — Cynddelw. 

vSaffwn — A  beam,  or  a  shaft. 

"A  saffwn  of  ample  wrath  is  its  spike." — Cynddelw. 

Saffwy — A  pike,  or  lance.    This  weapon  was  used  in  the 
battle  of  Cattraeth. 

"  He  would  not  say  but  that  Cynon  should  see  the  corpse 
Of  one  harnessed  and  saffwT/awc  (holding  a  pike),  and  of  a 
wide-spread  fame." —  Gododin. 

Said — That  part  of  any  tool  which  goeth  into  the  haft ; 

the  hilt,  haft,  or  handle.      Cleddyf  crynsaid,  a  sword 

with  a  round  handle. 
Saled — An  helmet,  or  headpiece. 

"If  William  will  give  a  steel  saled, 
To  fasten  the  temples  comfortably." 

G.  Glyn,  a.d.  1450. 

Segan — A  covering,  a  cloak. 

"  The  love  segan  of  the  ladies ; 
Guto  the  panegyrist,  a  lodger  midst  mead, 
Know  that  the  garment  is  mine." 

leuan  ap  Hywel  Swrdwal,  1460. 

SiDAN — Silk;  satin. 

SiDER — Lace;  fringe. 

SiNDAL — Sindon;  fine  linen;  cambric.     The  word  was 

used  by  the  old  writers  to  signify  a  thin  kind  of  silk, 

like  cypress. 

"  The  couch  which  the  maiden  had  prepared  for  him 
(Owain)  was  meet  for  Arthur  himself;  it  was  of  scarlet,  and 
fur,  and  satin,  and  sindal,  and  fine  linen." — Lady  of  the 


Gwynflmlcl  Brycheiniawg,  11  GO- 1220,  in  his  Odo  on 
St.  David,  describes  liini  as  being  robed  in  slndal. 
"  Dewi  son  of  Sant  with  a  sindal  vest." 
SwcH — A  soc ;  a  point ;  the  boss  of  a  shield. 

"  He  bore  a  heavy  three-edged  sword  with  a  golden  hilt,  in 
a  scabbard  of  black  leather,  having  a  swell  of  fine  gold  on  the 
point  ii.  €.,  being  tipped  with  fine  gold)."— Z>rea?n  ofRhonahwij, 
p.  407. 

To  hold  the  swell  of  a  shield  upwards  was  regarded 
as  a  signal  of  peace. 

"  Behold  one  of  the  ships  outstripped  the  others,  and  they 
saw  a  shield  lifted  up  above  the  side  of  the  ship,  and  the  sioch 
of  the  shield  was  upwards,  in  token  of  peace."— 5rawM?e«,  p. 
Sychyn — A  soc. 

"  Impelled  are  sharp  weapons  of  iron— gashing  is  the  blade. 

And  with  a  clang  the  sychyn  descends  upon  the  pate." 



Tabar — A  tabard.     The  word  was  known  in  the  sixth 

century,  as  it  is  mentioned  by  Taliesin. 
Taladdurn — A  front  ornament. 
Talaith Properly  a  head-band,  such  as  that  wherewith 

a  nurse  ties  the  head  of  a  little  child ;  also,  a  crown, 

a  coronet,  a  diadem. 
"  The  three  taleitUawg  cad  (diademed  warriors)  of  the  isle 

of  Britain ;  Trystan  son  of  Tallwch,  Huail  son  of  Caw,  and 

Cai  son  of  Cynyr  the  handsome  knight;  and  one  was  taleith- 

176  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

iawg  over  the  three,  namely,  Bedwyr  son  of  Pedrog." — Triad 
69.     Third  Series. 

The  sons  of  Rhodri  the  Great  were  likewise  styled 
"  the  three  taleithiawg  princes,  by  reason  that  each  of 
them  did  wear  on  his  helmet  a  coronet  of  gold,  being 
a  broad  head -band  indented  upwards,  set  and  wrought 
with  precious  stones." — Vide  Wynne  s  Hist,  of  Wales, 
p.  34.  Hence  also  the  word  came  to  signify  a  princi- 
pality, or  a  province. 

Taleithig — A  fillet,  a  bandlet. 

Targed — A  target. 

Tarian — A  shield.  Gwrgan  the  Freckled,  the  fiftieth 
king  of  Britain,  "  enacted  a  law  that  no  one  should 
bear  a  tarian,  but  only  a  sword  and  bow ;  hence  his 
countrymen  became  very  heroic." — lolo  MSS.,  p.  351. 
Ancient  writers  represent  the  tarianau  of  the  Britons 
as  very  small ;  to  which  description  the  specimens 
which  occasionally  come  to  light  exactly  agree.  They 
seem  to  have  been  borne  in  the  hand,  rather  than  on 
the  arm. 

A  simple  tarian  was  valued  at  eightpence;  but  should 
it  be  of  blue  or  gold  enamel,  its  value  was  twenty-four 
pence. — Myv.  Arch.,  iii.,  p.  423. 

Tasel — A  bandage  ;  a  sash  ;  a  fringe  ;  a  tassel. 

Teddyf — A  socket ;  a  hollow  for  receiving  a  handle,  or 
the  like. 

"  The  smith  of  the  palace  ought  to  perform  all  the  jobs  of 
the  palace  gratuitously,  except  three  things ;  those  are  particu- 
larly the  rim  of  a  pot,  the  edge  of  a  coulter,  and  the  teddyf  of 
a  hatchet  and  of  a  spear  head." — Welsh  Laws. 

Teisban — A  piece  of  tapestry ;  a  quilt ;  a  hassock. 


Teyrndlws — A  jewel,  or  part  of  the  regalia.  The  ancient 
teyrndlysau  of  Wales,  among  which  were  the  croes 
naid,  adorned  with  gold  and  silver  and  precious  stones, 
and  the  crown  of  King  Arthur,  were,  after  the  defeat 
of  Dafydd  ab  Gruffydd,  conveyed  by  Edward  I.  with 
magnificent  pomp  to  Westminster  Abbey.  "  Et  sic 
Wallensium  gloria  ad  Anglicos,  licet  invite,  est  trans- 
lata." — Annal.  Waver L     Matth.  Westm. 

Teyrnwialen — A  sceptre. 

TiNBAis — A  petticoat. 

Tlws — A  jewel. 

Torch — A  torques ;  a  collar ;  a  wreath.  The  nobility 
and  great  commanders  among  the  ancient  Britons 
wore  golden  tyrch  about  their  necks,  as  did  also  their 
neighbours  in  Gaul.  Tacitus  mentions  the  tyrch  among 
the  British  spoils  exhibited  at  Rome  with  the  noble 
captive  Caractacus  ;  and  Dion  Cassius,  in  his  descrip- 
tion of  Boadicea,  tells  us,  "  she  wore  a  large  golden 
torques,"  &c. — Hist.  Rom..,  1.  G2.  Frequent  allusion 
is  made  to  the  torch  by  the  bards  of  the  sixth  century ; 
and  even  as  late  as  the  close  of  the  twelfth  century  we 
meet  with  a  lord  of  lal  wearing  the  golden  chain,  and 
hence  denominated  Llewelyn  aurdorchog. 

ToRON — A  mantle,  or  cloak. 

Toryn — A  mantle  ;  a  cope  ;  or  sacerdotal  vesture. 

"  I  will  not  be  a  carrying  toryn,  nor  pluvial  cap." — Adage. 

Trws — A  covering  garment ;  a  trouse,  dress,  or  habili- 
Tryfer — A  forked  spear,  or  harpoon. 

"  And  the  tryfer  of  battle  and  tumult." — lolo  Goch. 

2  a 

178  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS    FOR 

TuDDED — A  covering. 

"  The  groom  of  the  chamber  is  entitled  to  all  the  old  clothes 
of  the  king,  except  his  Lenten  tuclded." — Welsh  Laws. 

TuDDEDYN — A  covering. 

"  Every  town-wrought   tuddedyn,  its  value  is  twenty-four 
pence;  every  home-spun  tuddedyn,  eightpence." — Welsh  Laws. 

TuL — A  shroud. 
TuLi — Id. 

TwLi — Buckram;  stiff  cloth. 

TwYG — A  garment ;  a  toga.     Merddin  seems  to  refer  it 
to  the  monks  in  the  following  lines  : — 

"  I  will  not  receive  the  communion  from  accursed  monks, 
With  their  twygau  on  their  knees, 
May  I  be  communicated  by  God  Himself." 

Tytmwy — A  loop  ;  a  clasp  ;  a  buckle. 

"  Derbyniad  pen  cengl,  modrwy  yn  dal  pwrs  wrth  wregys." 
—J.  Davies,  D.D.,  1630. 

"  It  was  a  tytmwy  on  a  gap, 
The  string  of  the  wood,  across  a  dingle. 
Strong  was  the  briar." — D.  ah  Gwilym. 

Tywel — A  cloth  ;  a  towel. 


YsGARLAD — Scarlet.     See  Sindal. 

YsGiN — A  robe  made  of  skin  with  the  fur  on ;  a  pelisse. 
Rhita  Gawr,  who  lived  beyond  the  historical  era  of  the 
Britons,  is  said  to  have  made  for  himself  an  i/sgin  from 
the  beards  of  the  princes  that  he  reduced  to  the  rank  of 


shaved  ones,  or  slaves,  on  account  of  their  op})rcssion. 
—  Triad  54.     Third  Series.      G.  nh  Arthur. 

The  legal  worth  of  an  ysgin  belonging  to  the  king 
was  one  pound  ;  also  to  the  queen  one  pound  ;  if  it 
belonged  to  a  freeholder  or  his  wife,  120  pence. — My  v. 
Arch.,  iii.,  424.  It  was  thus  a  very  expensive  article 
of  dress. 
YsGiNAWR — A  robe.  Llywclyn  Prydydd  y  Moch  de- 
scribes Llywelyn  ab  lorwerth  as  invested  with 

"  An  ample  ysginawr 
Of  scarlet,  the  hue  of  the  gleaming  of  flames." 

YsGWYD — A  shield  ;  a  target.  The  early  bards  make 
frequent  use  of  this  word  in  their  description  of  heroes 
and  battles.     Urien  Rheged  had  a  gold  ysgwyd. 

"  Aur  ysgwyd  ar  ysgwydd  Urien." — LI.  Hen. 

YsGWYDAWR — A  shield  ;  a  target. 

"  Have  I  not  been  presented  by  Rhun  the  magnificent, 
With  a  hundred  swarms,  and  a  hundred  ysgwydcmrV 

LI.  Hen. 

YsGWYDRWY — The  rim  of  a  shield. 

"  My  wreath  is  of  ruddy  gem, 
Gold  my  ysgwydrwy." — Taliesin. 

YsGWYDDLiAN — A  shouldcr  scarf;  an  ephod. 


YsNODEN — A  fillet,  band,  riband  or  lace ;  a  head-band  ; 
a  hair  lace.  Ysnoden  garni,  rhwymyn,  a  swaddling 

"  I  saw  a  man  in  the  prime  of  life,  with  his  beard  newly 
shorn,  clad  in  a  robe  and  a  mantle  of  yellow  satin,  and  round 

180  GLOSSARY    OF    TERMS,    ETC. 

the  top  of  his  mantle  was  an  ysnoden  of  gold  lace." — Lady  of 
the  Fountain, 

YsNODENiG — A  bandlet. 
YsPAR — A  spear,  or  pike. 

"  O  Graid,  son  of  Hoewgi, 
With  thy  ysperi 
Thou  causest  an  effusion  of  blood." — Gododin. 

YspARDUN — A  spur.  According  to  Hywel  Dda's  Laws, 
the  head  groom  of  the  palace  was  entitled  to  the  king's 
old  yspardunau.  In  the  same  Code  also  yspardunau 
of  gold  are  valued  at  fourpence;  of  silver,  at  two- 
pence ;  of  tin  or  brass,  at  one  penny. 

YspicELL — A  dart. 

YsTOLA — A  scarf;  an  ephod  ;  a  wrapper;  a  loose  gown; 
a  stole. 

"  They  beheld  a  young  man  sitting  on  the  right  side,  being 
clad  in  a  shining  ystola." — W.  Salisbury. 

YsTRAiG — A  buckle. 


R.  Mason,  Printer,  High  Street,  Tenby.